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Protein phosphorylation networks in motor neuron death

Chapter
Part of the Progress in Drug Research book series (PDR, volume 59)

Summary

The disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the death of specific groups of neurons, especially motor neurons, which innervate skeletal muscle, and neurons connecting the cerebral cortex with motor neurons, such as corticospinal tract neurons. There have been numerous attempts to elucidate why there is selective involvement of motor neurons in ALS. Recent observations have demonstrated altered activities and protein levels of diverse kinases in the brain and spinal cord of transgenic mice that overexpress a mutant superoxide dismutase (mSOD) gene that is found in patients with the familial form of ALS, as well as in patients who have died with ALS. These results suggest that the alteration of protein phosphorylation may be involved in the pathogenesis of ALS. The changes in protein kinase and phosphatase expression and activity can affect the activation of important neuronal neurotransmitter receptors such as NMDA receptors or other signaling proteins and can trigger, or modify, the process producing neuronal loss in ALS. These various kinases, phosphatases and signaling proteins are involved in many signaling pathways; however, they have close interactions with each other. Therefore, an understanding of the role of protein kinases and protein phosphatases and the molecular organization of protein phosphorylation networks are useful to determine the mechanisms of selective motor neuron death.

Key words

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis motor neuron NMDA receptor neurotoxicity PSD-95 protein kinase protein phosphatase protein phosphorylation 

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© Springer Basel AG 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of KinesiologySimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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