Advertisement

Mediators and their receptors involved in neurogenic inflammation

  • Dimos D. Mitsikostas
Chapter
  • 61 Downloads
Part of the Progress in Inflammation Research book series (PIR)

Abstract

The trigeminal system is the basic neuronal system that transmits nociceptive information from the cranial structures, via the trigeminal ganglion, to the trigeminal nucleus caudalis [1]. Based on their histochemical and functional properties, the trigeminal ganglion cells are divided into two groups: approximately one-third project large, myelinated A-fibers and are mostly sensitive to mechanical stimulation; the remaining two-thirds project small, unmyelinated Aδ- and C-fibers and are nociceptive. The nerve cells projecting the small fibers can be further divided into two groups of approximately equal size. One subgroup contains calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P as well as their receptors and also receptors for nerve growth factor. The remaining cells have a distinct chemical phenotype, are non-peptidergic, and carry receptors for the neurotrophic factor derived from the glial cell line [2].

Keywords

Nerve Growth Factor Trigeminal Ganglion Neurogenic Inflammation Trigeminal Nucleus Caudalis Trigeminovascular System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Moskowitz MA, Reinhard JF, Romero J et al (1979) Neurotransmitters and the fifth cra-nial nerve: is there a relation to the headache phase of migraine? Lancet 2: 883–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    McMahon SB, Bennett GJ (2000) Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and nociceptive neurons. In: JN Wood (ed): Molecular basis of pain induction. Wiley-Liss, New York, 65–86Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moskowitz MA (1993) Neurogenic inflammation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine. Neurology 43: S16–S20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Markowitz S, Saito K, Moskowitz MA (1988) Neurogenically mediated plasma extravasation in dura mater: effect of ergot alkaloids. A possible mechanism of action in vascular headache. Cephalalgia 8: 83–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Markowitz S, Saito K, Moskowitz MA (1987) Neurogenically mediated leakage of plasma protein occurs from blood vessels in dura mater but not brain. J Neurosci 7: 4129–4136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dimitriadou V, Buzzi MG, Theoharides TC, Moskowitz, MA (1992) Ultrastructural evidence for neurogenically mediated changes in blood vessels of the rat dura mater and tongue following antidromic trigeminal stimulation. Neuroscience 48: 187–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rozniecki JJ, Dimitriadou V, Lambracht-Hall M et al (1999) Morphological and functional demonstration of rat dura mater mast cell-neuron interactions in vitro and in vivo. Brain Res 49: 1–15Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Delepine L, Aubineau P (1997) Plasma protein extravasation induced in the rat dura mater by stimulation of the parasympathetic sphenopalatine ganglion. Exp Neurol 147: 389–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buzzi MG, Sakas DE, Moskowitz MA (1989) Indomethacin and acetylsalicylic acid Dimos D. Mitsikostas block neurogenic plasma protein extravasation in rat dura mater. Eur J Pharmacol 165: 251–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Saito K, Markowitz S, Moskowitz MA (1988) Ergot alkaloids block neurogenic extravasation in dura mater: proposed action in vascular headaches. Ann Neurol 24: 732–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buzzi MG, Carter WB, Shimizu T et al (1991) Dihydroergotamine and sumatriptan attenuate levels of CGRP in plasma in rat superior sagittal sinus during electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion. Neuropharmacology 30: 1193–1200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Martin GR, Robertson AD, MacLennan SJ et al (1997) Receptor specificity and trigemino-vascular inhibitory actions of a novel 5-HT1B/1D receptor partial agonist, 311C90 (zolmitriptan). Br J Pharmacol 121: 157–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Connor HE, Feniuk W, Beattie DT et al (1997) Naratriptan: biological profile in animal models relevant to migraine. Cephalalgia 17: 145–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Williamson DJ, Shepheard SL, Hill RG, Hargreaves RJ (1997) The novel anti-migraine agent rizatriptan inhibits neurogenic durai vasodilation and extravasation. Eur J Pharmacol 328: 61–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee WS, Limmroth V, Ayata C et al (1995) Peripheral GABA-A receptor-mediated effects of sodium valproate on dural plasma protein extravasation to substance P and trigeminal stimulation. Br J Pharmacol 116: 1661–1667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Olivar T, Razzaque Z, Nwagwu M, Longmore J (2000) Neurogenic vasodilation in rabbit basilar isolated artery: involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide. Eur J Pharmacol 395: 61–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Edvinsson L, Ekman R, Jansen I et al (1987) Calcitonin gene-related peptide and cerebral blood vessels: distribution and vasomotor effects. J Cereb Blood Flow Metabol 7: 720–728Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hutchins B, Spears R, Hinton RJ, Harper RP (2000) Calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P immunoreactivity in rat trigeminal ganglia and brainstem following adjuvant-induced inflammation of the temporomandibular joint. Arch Oral Biol 45: 335–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Spears R, Hutchins B, Hinton RJ (1998) Capsaicin application to the temporomandibular joint alters calcitonin gene-related peptide levels in the trigeminal ganglion of the rat. J Orofac Pain 12: 108–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ichikawa H, Sugimoto T (1999) Peptide 19-immunoreactive primary sensory neurons in the rat trigeminal ganglion. Brain Res 846: 274–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Knyihar-Csillik E, Tajti J, Samsam M et al (1998) Depletion of calcitonin gene-related peptide from the caudal trigeminal nucleus of the rat after electrical stimulation of the Gasserian ganglion. Exp Brain Res 118: 111–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Van Rossum D, Hanisch UK, Quirion R (1997) Neuroanatomical localization, pharmacological characterization and functions of CGRP, related peptides and their receptors. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 21: 649–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moreno MJ, Cohen Z, Stanimirovic DB, Hamel E (1999) Functional calcitonin gene-related peptide type 1 and adrenomedullin receptors in human trigeminal ganglia, brain vessels, and cerebromicrovascular or astroglial cells in culture. J Cereb Blood Flow Metabol 19: 1270–1278Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alexander SPH, Peters JA (1997) Receptor and ion channel nomenclature. Trends Pharmacol Sci (Suppl 1) 18: 1–82Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Steinhoff M, Vergnolle N, Young SH et al (2000) Agonists of proteinase-activated receptor 2 induce inflammation by a neurogenic mechanism. Nat Med 6: 151–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hunt SP, O’Brien JA, Palmer JA (2000) Role of substance P in nociception, analgesia, and aggression. In: JN Wood (ed): Molecular basis of pain induction. Wiley-Liss, New York, 209–260Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goadsby PJ, Edvinsson L, Ekman R (1988) Release of vasoactive peptides in the extracerebral circulation of humans and the cat during activation of the trigeminovascular system. Ann Neurol 23: 193–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zagami AS, Goadsby PJ, Edvinsson L (1990) Stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus in the cat causes release of vasoactive peptides. Neuropeptides 16: 69–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goadsby PJ, Edvinsson L, Ekman R (1990) Vasoactive peptide release in the extracerebral circulation of humans during migraine headache. Ann Neurol 28: 183–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gallai V, Sarchielli P, Floridi A et al (1995) Vasoactive peptide levels in the plasma of young migraine patients with and without aura assessed both interictally and ictally Cephalalgia 15: 384–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Samsam M, Covenas R, Ahangari R et al (1999) Simultaneous depletion of neurokinin A, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide from the caudal trigeminal nucleus of the rat during electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion. Pain 84: 389–395Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Samsam M, Covenas R, Ahangari R et al (1999) Alterations in neurokinin A, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivities in the caudal trigeminal nucleus of the rat following electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion. Neurosci Lett 261: 179–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    O’Shaughnessy CT, Connor HE (1994) Investigation of the role of tachykinin NK1, NK2 receptors and CGRP receptors in neurogenic plasma protein extravasation in dura mater. Eur J Pharmacol 263: 193–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Doods H, Hallermayer G, Wu D et al (2000) Pharmacological profile of BIBN4096BS, the first selective small molecule CGRP antagonist. Br J Pharmacol 129: 420–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Longmore J, Shaw D, Smith D et al (1997) Differential distribution of 5HT1D- and 5HT1B-immunoreactivity within the human trigemino-cerebrovascular system: implications for the discovery of new antimigraine drugs. Cephalalgia 17: 833–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Patacchini R, Maggi CA (1995) Tachykinin receptors and receptor subtypes. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 329: 161–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Matthews MA, Hoffmann KD, Stover JD (1992) Ultrastructural characterization of substance-P-immunoreactive synaptic terminals in the cat’s normal and rhizotomized trigeminal subnucleus caudalis. Somatosens Mot Res 9: 131–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Carlton SM, Zhou S, Coggeshall RE (1998) Evidence for the interaction of glutamate and NK1 receptors in the periphery. Brain Res 790: 160–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liu-Chen LY, Liszczak TM, King JC, Moskowitz MA (1986) Immunoelectron micro-scopic study of substance P-containing fibers in feline cerebral arteries. Brain Res 369: 12–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Matsuda H, Kusakabe T, Hayashida Y et al (1998) Substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerve fibers in the nasal mucosa of chronically hypoxic rats. Brain Res Bull 45: 563–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gibbins IL, Furness JB, Costa M et al (1985) Co-localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity with substance P in cutaneous, vascular and visceral sensory neurons of guinea pigs. Brain Res Bull 57: 125–130Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Battaglia G, Rustioni A (1988) Coexistence of glutamate and substance P in dorsal root ganglion neurons of the rat and monkey. J Comp Neurol 277: 302–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Moskowitz MA, Brody M, Liu-Chen LY (1983) In vitro release of immunoreactive substance P from putative afferent nerve endings in bovine pia arachnoid. Neuroscience 9: 809–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reid J, McCulloch J (1987) Capsaicin and blood-brain barrier permeability. Neurosci Lett 81: 165–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Covenas R, De Leon M, Chadi G et al (1994) Adrenalectomy increases the number of substance P and somatostatin immunoreactive nerve cells in the rat lumbar dorsal root ganglia. Brain Res 640: 352–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ogun-Muyiwa P, Helliwell R, McIntyre P, Winter J (1999) Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) regulates VR1 and substance P in cultured sensory neurons. Neuroreport 10: 2107–2111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Liu H, Mantyh PW, Basbaum AI (1997) NMDA-receptor regulation of substance P release from primary afferent nociceptors. Nature 386: 721–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Iversen L (1998) Substance P equals pain substance? Nature 392: 334–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    De Felipe C, Herrero JF, O’Brien JA et al (1998) Altered nociception, analgesia and aggression in mice lacking the receptor for substance P. Nature 392: 394–397Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kramer MS, Cutler N, Feighner J et al (1998) Distinct mechanism for antidepressant activity by blockade of central substance P receptors. Science 281: 1640–1645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Beattie DT, Beresford IJ, Connor HE et al (1995) The pharmacology of GR203040, a novel, potent and selective non-peptide tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist. Br J Pharmacol 116: 3149–3157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Matsubara T, Moskowitz MA, Huang Z (1992) UK-14,304, R(—)-alpha-methyl-histamine and SMS 201–995 block plasma protein leakage within dura mater by prejunctional mechanisms. Eur J Pharmacol 224: 145–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Polley JS, Gaskin PJ, Perren MJ et al (1997) The activity of GR205171, a potent non-peptide tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, in the trigeminovascular system. Regul Pept 68: 23–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Michaud JC, Alonso R, Gueudet C et al (1998) Effects of SR140333, a selective non-peptide NK1 receptor antagonist, on trigemino-thalamic nociceptive pathways in the rat. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 12: 88–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Branchet-Gumila MC, Boisnic S, Le Charpentier Y et al (1999) Neurogenic modifications induced by substance P in an organ culture of human skin. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 12: 211–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bereiter DA, Bereiter DF, Tonnessen BH, MacLean DB (1998) Selective blockade of substance P or neurokinin A receptors reduces the expression of c-fos in trigeminal subnucleus caudalis after corneal stimulation in the rat. Neuroscience 83: 525–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Clayton JS, Gaskin PJ, Beattie DT (1997) Attenuation of fos-like immunoreactivity in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis following trigeminovascular activation in the anaesthetised guinea-pig. Brain Res 775: 74–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cutrer FM, Moussaoui S, Garret C, Moskowitz MA (1995) The non-peptide neurokinin-1 antagonist, RPR 100893, decreases c-fos expression in trigeminal nucleus caudalis following noxious chemical meningeal stimulation. Neuroscience 64: 741–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Goadsby PJ, Hoskin KL, Knight YE (1998) Substance P blockade with the potent and centrally acting antagonist GR205171 does not effect central trigeminal activity with superior sagittal sinus stimulation. Neuroscience 86: 337–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Iversen LL, Jessell T, Kanazawa I (1976) Release and metabolism of substance P in rat hypothalamus. Nature 264: 81–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hall ME, Miley F, Stewart JM (1989) The role of enzymatic processing in the biological actions of substance P. Peptides 10: 895–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Samsam M, Covenas R, Ahangari R et al (2000) Simultaneous depletion of neurokinin A, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide from the caudal trigeminal nucleus of the rat during electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion. Pain 84: 389–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Goldstein DJ, Wang O, Saper JR et al (1997) Ineffectiveness of neurokinin-1 antagonist in acute migraine: a crossover study. Cephalalgia 17: 785–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    May A, Shepheard SL, Knorr M et al (1998) Retinal plasma extravasation in animals but not in humans: implications for the pathophysiology of migraine. Brain 121: 1231–1237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pappagalo M, SzaboZ, Esposito G et al (1999) Imaging neurogenic inflammation in patients with migraine headaches (abstract). Neurology 52: A274–A275Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Moskowitz MA, Mitsikostas DD (1997) A negative clinical study in the search for a migraine treatment (editorial). Pain 17: 720–721Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wolff HG (1963) Headache and other headache pain. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ostfeld AM (1959) Some aspects of cardiovascular regulation in man. Angiology 10: 34–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kimball RW, Friedman AP, Vallejo E (1960) Effect of serotonin in migraine patients. Neurology 10: 107–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Anthony M, Hinterberger H, Lance LW (1969) The possible relationship of serotonin to the migraine syndrome. Res Clin Stud Headache 2: 29–59Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Humphrey PPA, Feniuk W, Marriott AS et al (1991) Preclinical studies on the anti-migraine drug, sumatriptan. Eur Neurol 31: 282–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hoyer D, Martin G (1997) 5-HT receptor classification and nomenclature: towards a harmonization with the human genome. Neuropharmacology 36: 419–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bonhaus DW, Flippin LA, Greenhouse RJ et al (1999) RS-127445: a selective, high affinity, orally bioavailable 5-HT2B receptor antagonist. Br J Pharmacol 127: 1075–1082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goadsby PJ, Hoskin KL (1998) Serotonin inhibits trigeminal nucleus activity evoked by craniovascular stimulation through a 5HT1B/lD receptor: a central action in migraine? Ann Neurol 43: 711–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Johnson KW, Phebus LA, Cohen ML (1998) Serotonin in migraine: theories, animal models and emerging therapies. Prog Drug Res 51: 219–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mitsikostas DD, Moskowitz MA (1998) Serotonin’s central action in migraine. Neurology Network Commentary 2: 232–235Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Oksenberg D, Marsters SA, O’Dowd BF et al (1992) A single amino-acid difference confers major pharmacological variation between human and rodent 5-HT1B receptors. Nature 360: 161–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bruinvels AT, Landwehrmeyer B, Moskowitz MA, Hoyer D (1992) Evidence for the presence of 5-HT1B receptor messenger RNA in neurons of the rat trigeminal ganglia. Eur J Pharmacol 227: 357–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Durham PL, Russo AF (1998) Serotonergic repression of mitogen-activated protein kinase control of the calcitonin gene-related peptide enhancer. Mol Endocrinol 12: 1002–1009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Durham PL, Sharma RV, Russo AF (1997) Repression of the calcitonin gene-related peptide promoter by 5-HT1 receptor activation. J Neurosci 17: 9545–9553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Durham PL, Russo AF (1999) Regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide secretion by a serotonergic antimigraine drug. J Neurosci 19: 3423–3429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bouchelet I, Cohen Z, Case B et al (1996) Differential expression of sumatriptan-sensitive 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in human trigeminal ganglia and cerebral blood vessels. Mol Pharmacol 50: 219–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nilsson T, Longmore J, Shaw D et al (1999) Contractile 5-HT1B receptors in human cerebral arteries: pharmacological characterization and localization with immunocytochemistry. Br J Pharmacol 128: 1133–1140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nilsson T, Longmore J, Shaw D et al (1999) Characterisation of 5-HT receptors in human coronary arteries by molecular and pharmacological techniques. Eur J Pharmacol 372: 49–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hamel E, Gregoire L, Lau B (1993) 5-HT1 receptors mediating contraction in bovine cerebral arteries: a model for human cerebrovascular ‘5-HT1D beta’ receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 242: 75–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kaumann AJ, Parsons AA, Brown AM (1993) Human arterial constrictor serotonin receptors. Cardiovasc Res 27: 2094–2103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lambert G, Michalicek J (1996) Effect of antimigraine drugs on dural blood flows and resistances and the responses to trigeminal stimulation. Eur J Pharmacol 311: 141–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Longmore J, Maguire JJ, MacLeod A et al (2000) Comparison of the vasoconstrictor effects of the selective 5-HT1D-receptor agonist L-775,606 with the mixed 5-HT1B/1D-receptor agonist sumatriptan and 5-HT in human isolated coronary artery. Br J Clin Neurosci Lett 49: 126–131Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bonaventure P, Langlois X, Leysen JE (1998) Co-localization of 5-HT1B- and 5-HT1D receptor mRNA in serotonergic cell bodies in guinea pig dorsal raphe nucleus: a double labeling in situ hybridization histochemistry study. Neurosci Lett 254: 113–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Adham N, Bard JA, Zgombick JM et al (1997) Cloning and characterization of the guinea pig 5-HT1F receptor subtype: a comparison of the pharmacological profile to the human species homolog. Neuropharmacology 36: 569–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Razzaque Z, Heald MA, Pickard JD et al (1999) Vasoconstriction in human isolated middle meningeal arteries: determining the contribution of 5-HT1B- and 5-HT11F-receptor activation. Br J Clin Pharmacol 47: 75–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shepheard S, Edvinsson L, Cumberbatch M et al (1999) Possible antimigraine mechanisms of action of the 5HT1F receptor agonist LY334370. Cephalalgia 19: 851–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Goldstein, DJ, Roon KI, Offen WW et al (1999) Migraine treatment with selective 5HT1F receptor agonist (SSOFRA) LY334370 (abstract). Cephalalgia 19: 318Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Waeber C, Moskowitz MA (1995) [3H]sumatriptan labels both 5-HT1D and 5-HT1F receptor binding sites in the guinea pig brain: an autoradiographic study. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 352: 263–275Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Buzzi MG, Moskowitz MA (1990) The antimigraine drug, sumatriptan (GR43175), selectively blocks neurogenic plasma extravasation from blood vessels in dura mater. Br J Pharmacol 99: 202–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Martin GR, Robertson AD, MacLennan SJ et al (1997) Receptor specificity and trigemino-vascular inhibitory actions of a novel 5-HT1B/1D receptor partial agonist, 311C90 (zolmitriptan). Br J Pharmacol 121: 157–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Yu XJ, Waeber C, Castanon N et al (1996) 5-Carboxamido-tryptamine, CP-122,288 and dihydroergotamine but not sumatriptan, CP-93,129, and serotonin-5-O-carboxymethyl-glycyl-tyrosinamide block dural plasma protein extravasation in knockout mice that lack 5-hydroxytryptamine1B receptors. Mol Pharmacol 49: 761–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Yu XJ, Cutrer FM, Moskowitz MA, Waeber C (1997) The 5-HTID receptor antagonist GR-127,935 prevents inhibitory effects of sumatriptan but not CP-122,288 and 5-CT on neurogenic plasma extravasation within guinea pig dura mater. Neuropharmacology 36: 83–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Petty MA, Elands J, Johnson MP et al (1997) The selectivity of MDL 74,721 in models of neurogenic versus vascular components of migraine. Eur J Pharmacol 336: 127–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cutrer FM, Yu XJ, Ayata G et al (1999) Effects of PNU-109,291, a selective 5-HT1D receptor agonist, on electrically induced dural plasma extravasation and capsaicinevoked c-fos immunoreactivity within trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Neuropharmacology 38: 1043–1053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wainscott DB, Johnson KW, Phebus LA et al (1998) Human 5-HT1F receptor-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding: correlation with inhibition of guinea pig dural plasma protein extravasation. Eur J Pharmacol 352: 117–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Phebus LA, Johnson KW, Zgombick JM et al (1997) Characterization of LY344864 as a pharmacological tool to study 5-HT1F receptors: binding affinities, brain penetration and activity in the neurogenic durai inflammation model of migraine. Life Sci 61: 2117–2126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Johnson KW, Schaus JM, Durkin MM et al (1997) 5-HT1Fp receptor agonists inhibit neurogenic durai inflammation in guinea pigs. Neuroreport 8: 2237–2240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Shepherd SL, Williamson DJ, Beer MS et al (1997) Differential effects of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists on neurogenic durai plasma extravasation and vasodilation in anaesthetized rats. Neuropharmacolgy 36: 525–533Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gupta P, Brown D, Butler P et al (1995) The in vivo pharmacological profile of a 5-HT1 receptor agonist, CP-122,288, a selective inhibitor of neurogenic inflammation. Br J Pharmacol 116: 23 85–2390Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lee WS, Moskowitz MA (1993) Conformationally restricted sumatriptan analogues, CP-122,288 and CP- 122,638, exhibit enhanced potency against neurogenic inflammation in dura mater. Brain Res 626: 303–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Roon KI, Olesen J, Diener HC et al (2000) No acute antimigraine efficacy of CP122,288, a highly potent inhibitor of neurogenic inflammation: results of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Ann Neurol 47: 238–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Martin G (1997) Serotonin receptor involvement in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraine. In: PJ Goadsby, SD Silberstein (eds): Headache. Butterworth-Heinemann, New York, 25–38Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Peroutka SJ (1988) Antimigraine drug interactions with serotonin receptor subtypes in human brain. Ann Neurol 23: 500–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Buzzi MG, Moskowitz MA, Peroutka SJ, Byun B (1991) Further characterization of the putative 5-HT receptor which mediates blockade of neurogenic plasma extravasation in rat dura mater. Br J Pharmacol 103: 1421–1428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Evrard A, Laporte AM, Chastanet M et al (1999) 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors control the firing of serotoninergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the mouse: studies in 5-HT1B knock-out mice. Eur J Neurosci 11: 3823–3831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Schmuck K, Ullmer C, Kalkman HO et al (1996) Activation of meningeal 5-HT2B receptors: an early step in the generation of migraine headache? Eur J Neurosci 8: 959–967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Martin GR, Bolofo ML, Giles H (1992) Inhibition of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by arginine analogues: a pharmacological analysis of agonist and tissue dependence. Br J Pharmacol 105: 643–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wei EP, Moskowitz MA, Boccalini P, Kontos HA (1992) Calcitonin gene-related peptide mediates nitroglycerin and sodium nitroprusside-induced vasodilation in feline cerebral arterioles. Circ Res 70: 1313–1319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Aley KO, McCarter G, Levine JD (1998) Nitric oxide signaling in pain and nociceptor sensitization in the rat. J Neurosci 18: 7008–7014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Garry MG, Richardson JD, Hargreaves KM (1994) Sodium nitroprusside evokes the release of immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P from dorsal horn slices via nitric oxide-dependent and nitric oxide-independent mechanisms. J Neurosci 14: 4329–4337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Yonehara, N, Yoshimura M (1999) Effect of nitric oxide on substance P release from the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons. Neurosci Lett 271: 199–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Silberstein SD, Fozard JR, Murphy DL (1992) More on mCPP and migraine (letter). Headache 32: 242–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Johnson KW, Nelson DB, Wainscott DB et al (1997) mCPP-induced durai extravasationa potential model of migraine prophylaxis [abstract]. Cephalalgia 17: 342Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Bonhaus DW, Chang LK, Cao Z et al (1999) RS-127445, a selective 5-HT2B receptor antagonist, blocks mCPP-induced plasma protein extravasation in dura mater and capsaicin-evoked c-fos expression in trigeminal nucleus caudalis. In: J Olesen, PJ Goadsby (eds): Cluster headache and related headaches. Oxford University Press, New York, 278–286Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Nelson AD, Wainscott DB, Lucaites VL et al (1997) Selective 5HT2B receptor antagonists block mCPP-induced durai extravasation (abstract). Cephalalgia 17: 342Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Knight YE, Edvinsson L, Goadsby PJ (1999) Blockade of calcitonin gene-related peptide release after superior sagittal sinus stimulation in cat: a comparison of avitriptan and CP122,288. Neuropeptides 33: 41–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Goadsby PJ, Edvinsson L (1993) The trigeminovascular system and migraine: studies characterizing cerebrovascular and neuropeptide changes seen in humans and cats. Ann Neurol 33: 48–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kaube H, Hoskin KL, Goadsby PJ (1993) Inhibition by sumatriptan of central trigeminal neurons only after blood-brain barrier disruption. Br J Pharmacol 109: 788–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Shepheard SL, Williamson DJ, Williams J et al (1995) Comparison of the effects of sumatriptan and the NK1 antagonist CP- 99,994 on plasma extravasation in dura mater and c-fos mRNA expression in trigeminal nucleus caudalis of rats. Neuropharmacology 34: 255–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Goadsby PJ, Hoskin KL (1996) Inhibition of trigeminal neurons by intravenous administration of the serotonin (5HT)1B/D receptor agonist zolmitriptan (311C90): are brain stem sites therapeutic target in migraine? Pain 67: 355–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Storer RJ, Goadsby PJ (1997) Microiontophoretic application of serotonin (5HT)1B/1D agonists inhibits trigeminal cell firing in the cat. Brain 120: 2171–2177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Lewin GR, Mendell LM (1993) Nerve growth factor and nociception. Trends Neurosci 16: 353–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Woolf CJ, Safieh-Garabedian B, Ma QP et al (1994) Nerve growth factor contributes to the generation of inflammatory sensory hypersensitivity. Neuroscience 62: 327–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Schicho R, Skofitsch G, Donnerer J (1999) Regenerative effect of human recombinant NGF on capsaicin-lesioned sensory neurons in the adult rat. Brain Res 815: 60–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Amann R, Sirinathsinghji DJ, Donnerer J et al (1996) Stimulation by nerve growth factor of neuropeptide synthesis in the adult rat in vivo: bilateral response to unilateral intraplantar injections. Neurosci Lett 203: 171–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Saldanha G, Hongo J, Plant G et al. (1999) Decreased CGRP but preserved Trk A immunoreactivity in nerve fibers in inflamed human superficial temporal arteries. J Neu-rol Neurosurg Psychiatry 66: 390–392Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Fernyhough P, Brewster WJ, Fernandes K et al (1998) Stimulation of nerve growth-factor and substance P expression in the iris-trigeminal axis of diabetic rats — involvement of oxidative stress and effects of aldose reductase inhibition. Brain Res 802: 247–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Freeland K, Liu YZ, Latchman DS (2000) Distinct signaling pathways mediate the cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent activation of the calcitonin gene-related peptide gene promoter by cAMP and nerve growth factor. Biochem J 345: 233–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Supowit SC, Christensen MD, Westlund KN et al (1995) Dexamethason and activators of the protein kinase A and C signal transduction pathways regulate neuronal calcitonin gene-related peptide expression and release. Brain Res 686: 77–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Watson A, Latchman D (1995) The cyclic AMP response element in the calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide gene promoter is necessary but not sufficient for its activation by nerve growth factor. J Biol Chem 270: 9655–9660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Bormann I (2000) The ‘ABC’ of GABA receptors. Trends Pharmacol Sci 21: 16–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Jensen R, Brinck T, Olesen J (1994) Sodium valproate has a prophylactic effect in migraine without aura: a triple-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Neurology 44: 647–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Cutrer FM, Moskowitz MA (1996) The actions of valproate and neurosteroids in a model of trigeminal pain. Headache 36: 579–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Dumba JS, Irish PS, Anderson NL, Westrum LE (1998) Electron microscopic analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glycine colocalization in rat trigeminal subnucleus caudalis. Brain Res 806: 16–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Cutrer FM, Limmroth V, Ayata G, Moskowitz MA (1995) Attenuation by valproate of c-fos immunoreactivity in trigeminal nucleus caudalis induced by intracisternal capsaicin. Br J Pharmacol 116: 3199–3204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Cashman JN (1996) The mechanisms of action of NSAIDs in analgesia. Drugs 52 (Suppl 5): 13–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ballou LR, Botting RM, Goorha S et al (2000) Nociception in cyclooxygenase isozymedeficient mice. Proc Nail Acad Sci USA 97: 10272–10276Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Breder CD, De Witt D, Kraig RP (1995) Characterization of inducible cyclooxygenase in rat brain. J Comp Neurol 355: 296–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Breder CD, Smith WL, Raz A et al (1992) Distribution and characterization of cyclooxygenase immunoreactivity in the ovine brain. J Comp Neurol 322: 409–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Yamagata K, Andreasson KI, Kaufmann WE et al (1993) Expression of a mitogeninducible cyclooxygenase in brain neurons: regulation by synaptic activity and glucocorticoids. Neuron 11: 371–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Matsumura K, Cao C, Ozaki M et al (1998) Brain endothelial cells express cyclooxygenase-2 during lipopolysaccharide-induced fever: light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical studies. J Neurosci 18: 6279–6289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Ebersberger A, Averbeck B, Messlinger K, Reeh PW (1999) Release of substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and prostaglandin E2 from rat dura mater encephali following electrical and chemical stimulation in vitro. Neuroscience 89: 901–907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Sugimoto Y, Shigemoto R, Namba T et al (1994) Distribution of the messenger RNA for the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3 in the mouse nervous system. Neuroscience 62: 919–928Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Hashimoto M, Yamamoto Y, Takagi H (1997) Effects of KB-2796 on plasma extravasation following antidromic trigeminal stimulation in the rat. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 97: 79–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Iversen HK, Olesen J (1996) Headache induced by a nitric oxide donor (nitroglycerin) responds to sumatriptan. A human model for development of migraine drugs. Cephalalgia 16: 412–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Thomsen LL, Olesen J (1998) Nitric oxide theory of migraine. Clin Neurosci 5: 28–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Thomsen LL, Olesen J (1997) A pivotal role of nitric oxide in migraine pain. Ann NY Acad Sci 835: 363–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Salvemini D, Currie MG, Mollace V (1996) Nitric oxide-mediated cyclooxygenase activation. A key event in the antiplatelet effects of nitrovasodilators. J Clin Invest 97: 2562–2568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Reuter U, Olesen IJ, Sanchez del Rio M et al (2000) Nitroglycerin infusion induces nitric oxide synthase type II expression in rat dura mater (abstract). Cephalalgia 20: 281–282Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M et al (1997) The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature 389: 816–824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Tominaga M, Caterina MJ, Malmberg AB et al (1998) The cloned capsaicin receptor integrates multiple pain-producing stimuli. Neuron 21: 531–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Guo A, Vulchanova L, Wang J et al (1999) Immunocytochemical localization of the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1): relationship to neuropeptides, the P2X3 purinoceptor and IB4 binding sites. Eur J Neurosci 11: 946–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Schepelmann K, Ebersberger A, Pawlak M et al (1999) Response properties of trigeminal brain stem neurons with input from dura mater encephali in the rat. Neuroscience 90: 543–554PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dimos D. Mitsikostas
    • 1
  1. 1.Headache ClinicAthens Naval HospitalAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations