Circulating Blood-Borne microRNAs as Biomarkers in Solid Tumors

  • Petra Vychytilova-Faltejskova
  • Ondrej SlabyEmail author
Part of the Experientia Supplementum book series (EXS, volume 106)


One of the major challenges in cancer research is the identification of stable biomarkers that could be routinely measured in easily accessible samples. Human blood and other body fluids represent rich sources for the identification of novel biomarkers. It is apparent that the availability of these biomarkers would improve an early detection of asymptomatic disease and the clinical management of cancer. MicroRNAs have been described to be present in various types of body fluids including cell-free serum and plasma. These days, the involvement of microRNAs in molecular pathology of cancer is well established. Moreover, it seems that these molecules could be optimal noninvasive biomarkers owing to their high stability under storage and handling conditions and high sensitivity and specificity in various diseases. To date, more than 100 circulating microRNAs with the potential to serve as novel diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive biomarkers for different types of cancers have been identified, and this number is still increasing. However, there are major discrepancies in the findings by different research groups, and few commonly altered microRNAs have been reported in these studies. Further studies on large cohorts using uniform methodology are warranted to establish the clinical applicability of circulating microRNAs for solid tumors. Here, we summarize the tumor-specific profiles of blood-borne microRNAs and discuss their potential utility for personalized medicine of solid tumors.


Circulating microRNAs Solid tumors Prognostic biomarkers Predictive biomarkers Diagnostic biomarkers 



This work was supported by grant IGA NT13549-4/2012, NT/13547-4/2012, AZV NV15-34678A of the Czech Ministry of Health, by MZ CR—RVO (MOU, 00209805), and by the project CEITEC—Central European Institute of Technology (CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0068).


  1. Abd-El-Fattah AA, Sadik NAH, Shaker OG et al (2013) Differential microRNAs expression in serum of patients with lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and pneumonia. Cell Biochem Biophys 67:875–884PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abue M, Yokoyama M, Shibuya R et al (2015) Circulating miR-483-3p and miR-21 is highly expressed in plasma of pancreatic cancer. Int J Oncol 46:539–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alegre E, Sanmamed MF, Rodriguez C et al (2014) Study of circulating microRNA-125b levels in serum exosomes in advanced melanoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 138:828–832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali S, Almhanna K, Chen W et al (2010) Differentially expressed miRNAs in the plasma may provide a molecular signature for aggressive pancreatic cancer. Am J Transl Res 3:28–47PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Anfossi S, Giordano A, Gao H et al (2014) High serum miR-19a levels are associated with inflammatory breast cancer and are predictive of favorable clinical outcome in patients with metastatic HER2+ inflammatory breast cancer. PLoS ONE 9, e83113PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Antolín S, Calvo L, Blanco-Calvo M et al (2015) Circulating miR-200c and miR-141 and outcomes in patients with breast cancer. BMC Cancer 15:297PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aushev VN, Zborovskaya IB, Laktionov KK et al (2013) Comparisons of microRNA patterns in plasma before and after tumor removal reveal new biomarkers of lung squamous cell carcinoma. PLoS ONE 8, e78649PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ayaz L, Görür A, Yaroğlu HY et al (2013) Differential expression of microRNAs in plasma of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: potential early-detection markers for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 139:1499–1506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Azizian A, Kramer F, Jo P et al (2015) Preoperative prediction of lymph node status by circulating miR-18b and miR-20a during chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer. World J Surg. doi: 10.1007/s00268-015-3083-8 [Epub ahead of print]PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bansal N, Yendluri V, Wenham RM (2009) The molecular biology of endometrial cancers and the implications for pathogenesis, classification, and targeted therapies. Cancer Control J 16:8–13Google Scholar
  11. Bansal A, Hong X, Lee I-H et al (2014) MicroRNA expression can be a promising strategy for the detection of Barrett’s esophagus: a pilot study. Clin Transl Gastroenterol 5, e65PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blum HE (2005) Hepatocellular carcinoma: therapy and prevention. World J Gastroenterol 11:7391–7400PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Brase JC, Johannes M, Schlomm T et al (2011) Circulating miRNAs are correlated with tumor progression in prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 128:608–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cai E-H, Gao Y-X, Wei Z et al (2012) Serum miR-21 expression in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 13:1563–1567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cannistra SA (2004) Cancer of the ovary. N Engl J Med 351:2519–2529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cazzoli R, Buttitta F, Di Nicola M et al (2013) microRNAs derived from circulating exosomes as noninvasive biomarkers for screening and diagnosing lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol 8:1156–1162PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chan M, Liaw CS, Ji SM et al (2013) Identification of circulating microRNA signatures for breast cancer detection. Clin Cancer Res 19:4477–4487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chao A, Lai C-H, Chen H-C et al (2014) Serum microRNAs in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 53:536–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen X, Ba Y, Ma L et al (2008) Characterization of microRNAs in serum: a novel class of biomarkers for diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. Cell Res 18:997–1006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen X, Hu Z, Wang W et al (2012a) Identification of ten serum microRNAs from a genome-wide serum microRNA expression profile as novel noninvasive biomarkers for non small cell lung cancer diagnosis. Int J Cancer 130:1620–1628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen Z-H, Zhang G-L, Li H-R et al (2012b) A panel of five circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers for prostate cancer. Prostate 72:1443–1452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen D, Cabay RJ, Jin Y et al (2013a) MicroRNA deregulations in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. J Oral Maxillofac Res 4, e2PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen J, Yao D, Li Y et al (2013b) Serum microRNA expression levels can predict lymph node metastasis in patients with early-stage cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Mol Med 32:557–567PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen W, Cai F, Zhang B et al (2013c) The level of circulating miRNA-10b and miRNA-373 in detecting lymph node metastasis of breast cancer: potential biomarkers. Tumour Biol 34:455–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen Q, Ge X, Zhang Y et al (2014) Plasma miR-122 and miR-192 as potential novel biomarkers for the early detection of distant metastasis of gastric cancer. Oncol Rep 31:1863–1870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chen L, Chu F, Cao Y et al (2015) Serum miR-182 and miR-331-3p as diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Tumour Biol doi:. doi: 10.1007/s13277-015-3430-2 [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  27. Cheng H, Zhang L, Cogdell DE et al (2011) Circulating plasma MiR-141 is a novel biomarker for metastatic colon cancer and predicts poor prognosis. PLoS ONE 6, e17745PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chow W-H, Dong LM, Devesa SS (2010) Epidemiology and risk factors for kidney cancer. Nat Rev Urol 7:245–257PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cui E, Li H, Hua F et al (2013a) Serum microRNA 125b as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker for advanced NSCLC patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Acta Pharmacol Sin 34:309–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cui M-H, Hou X-L, Lei X-Y et al (2013b) Upregulation of microRNA 181c expression in gastric cancer tissues and plasma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 14:3063–3066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cuk K, Zucknick M, Heil J et al (2013a) Circulating microRNAs in plasma as early detection markers for breast cancer. Int J Cancer 132:1602–1612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cuk K, Zucknick M, Madhavan D et al (2013b) Plasma microRNA panel for minimally invasive detection of breast cancer. PLoS ONE 8, e76729PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dai X, Pang W, Zhou Y et al (2015) Altered profile of serum microRNAs in pancreatic cancer associated new-onset diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes. doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.12313 [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  34. Dong L, Li Y, Han C et al (2014) miRNA microarray reveals specific expression in the peripheral blood of glioblastoma patients. Int J Oncol 45:746–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Eichelser C, Flesch-Janys D, Chang-Claude J et al (2013) Deregulated serum concentrations of circulating cell-free microRNAs miR-17, miR-34a, miR-155, and miR-373 in human breast cancer development and progression. Clin Chem 59:1489–1496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Faltejskova P, Bocanek O, Sachlova M et al (2012) Circulating miR-17-3p, miR-29a, miR-92a and miR-135b in serum: evidence against their usage as biomarkers in colorectal cancer. Cancer Biomark Sect Dis Markers 12:199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Feng Y, Liu J, Kang Y et al (2014) miR-19a acts as an oncogenic microRNA and is up-regulated in bladder cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 33:67PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fleming NH, Zhong J, da Silva IP et al (2015) Serum-based miRNAs in the prediction and detection of recurrence in melanoma patients. Cancer 121:51–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Foss KM, Sima C, Ugolini D et al (2011) miR-1254 and miR-574-5p: serum-based microRNA biomarkers for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol 6:482–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Franchina T, Amodeo V, Bronte G et al (2014) Circulating miR-22, miR-24 and miR-34a as novel predictive biomarkers to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. J Cell Physiol 229:97–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Frères P, Josse C, Bovy N et al (2014) Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients induces miR-34a and miR-122 expression. J Cell Physiol. doi: 10.1002/jcp.24730 [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  42. Friedman EB, Shang S, de Miera EV-S et al (2012) Serum microRNAs as biomarkers for recurrence in melanoma. J Transl Med 10:155PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fu Z, Qian F, Yang X et al (2014) Circulating miR-222 in plasma and its potential diagnostic and prognostic value in gastric cancer. Med Oncol 31:164. doi: 10.1007/s12032-014-0164-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fujita Y, Kuwano K, Ochiya T, Takeshita F (2014) The impact of extracellular vesicle-encapsulated circulating microRNAs in lung cancer research. BioMed Res Int 2014:486413PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ganepola GA, Rutledge JR, Suman P et al (2014) Novel blood-based microRNA biomarker panel for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. World J Gastrointest Oncol 6:22–33PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gao Y-C, Wu J (2015) MicroRNA-200c and microRNA-141 as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Tumour Biol doi:. doi: 10.1007/s13277-015-3138-3 [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  47. Ge W, Yu D-C, Li Q-G et al (2014) Expression of serum miR-16, let-7f, and miR-21 in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and their clinical significances. Clin Lab 60:427–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Giráldez MD, Lozano JJ, Ramírez G et al (2013) Circulating microRNAs as biomarkers of colorectal cancer: results from a genome-wide profiling and validation study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11:681–688.e3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Giray BG, Emekdas G, Tezcan S et al (2014) Profiles of serum microRNAs; miR-125b-5p and miR223-3p serve as novel biomarkers for HBV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma. Mol Biol Rep 41:4513–4519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Godfrey AC, Xu Z, Weinberg CR et al (2013) Serum microRNA expression as an early marker for breast cancer risk in prospectively collected samples from the Sister Study cohort. Breast Cancer Res 15:R42PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Goodenberger ML, Jenkins RB (2012) Genetics of adult glioma. Cancer Genet 205:613–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gore RM (1997) Gastric cancer. Clinical and pathologic features. Radiol Clin North Am 35:295–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gorur A, Balci Fidanci S, Dogruer Unal N et al (2013) Determination of plasma microRNA for early detection of gastric cancer. Mol Biol Rep 40:2091–2096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Greenberg E, Besser MJ, Ben-Ami E et al (2013) A comparative analysis of total serum miRNA profiles identifies novel signature that is highly indicative of metastatic melanoma: a pilot study. Biomarkers 18:502–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Greene KL, Meng MV, Elkin EP et al (2004) Validation of the Kattan preoperative nomogram for prostate cancer recurrence using a community based cohort: results from cancer of the prostate strategic urological research endeavor (CAPSURE). J Urol 171:2255–2259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Guo F, Tian J, Lin Y et al (2013) Serum microRNA-92 expression in patients with ovarian epithelial carcinoma. J Int Med Res 41:1456–1461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Haldrup C, Kosaka N, Ochiya T et al (2014) Profiling of circulating microRNAs for prostate cancer biomarker discovery. Drug Deliv Transl Res 4:19–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Han H-S, Yun J, Lim S et al (2013) Downregulation of cell-free miR-198 as a diagnostic biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion. Int J Cancer 133:645–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hansen TF, Carlsen AL, Heegaard NHH et al (2015) Changes in circulating microRNA-126 during treatment with chemotherapy and bevacizumab predicts treatment response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 112:624–629PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hauser S, Wulfken LM, Holdenrieder S et al (2012) Analysis of serum microRNAs (miR-26a-2*, miR-191, miR-337-3p and miR-378) as potential biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol 36:391–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Heegaard NHH, Schetter AJ, Welsh JA et al (2012) Circulating micro-RNA expression profiles in early stage nonsmall cell lung cancer. Int J Cancer 130:1378–1386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Heneghan HM, Miller N, Lowery AJ et al (2010) Circulating microRNAs as novel minimally invasive biomarkers for breast cancer. Ann Surg 251:499–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hennessey PT, Sanford T, Choudhary A et al (2012) Serum microRNA biomarkers for detection of non-small cell lung cancer. PLoS ONE 7, e32307PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Herman A, Gruden K, Blejec A et al (2015) Analysis of glioblastoma patients’ plasma revealed the presence of microRNAs with a prognostic Impact on survival and those of viral origin. PLoS ONE 10, e0125791PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Herreros-Villanueva M (2012) Adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment in pancreatic cancer. World J Gastroenterol 18:1565PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hirajima S, Komatsu S, Ichikawa D et al (2013) Clinical impact of circulating miR-18a in plasma of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer 108:1822–1829PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hong F, Li Y, Xu Y, Zhu L (2013) Prognostic significance of serum microRNA-221 expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer. J Int Med Res 41:64–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hou B, Ishinaga H, Midorikawa K et al (2015) Circulating microRNAs as novel prognosis biomarkers for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Biol Ther 16:1042–1046PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Huang Z, Huang D, Ni S et al (2010) Plasma microRNAs are promising novel biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer 127:118–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Igglezou M, Vareli K, Georgiou GK et al (2014) Kinetics of circulating levels of miR-195, miR-155 and miR-21 in patients with breast cancer undergoing mastectomy. Anticancer Res 34:7443–7447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Jia W, Wu Y, Zhang Q et al (2013) Identification of four serum microRNAs from a genome-wide serum microRNA expression profile as potential non-invasive biomarkers for endometrioid endometrial cancer. Oncol Lett 6:261–267PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Jiang M, Zhang P, Hu G et al (2013) Relative expressions of miR-205-5p, miR-205-3p, and miR-21 in tissues and serum of non-small cell lung cancer patients. Mol Cell Biochem 383:67–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jiang X, Du L, Wang L et al (2015) Serum microRNA expression signatures identified from genome-wide microRNA profiling serve as novel noninvasive biomarkers for diagnosis and recurrence of bladder cancer. Int J Cancer 136:854–862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Joerger M, Baty F, Früh M et al (2014) Circulating microRNA profiling in patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC receiving bevacizumab/erlotinib followed by platinum-based chemotherapy at progression (SAKK 19/05). Lung Cancer 85:306–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jung E-J, Santarpia L, Kim J et al (2012) Plasma microRNA 210 levels correlate with sensitivity to trastuzumab and tumor presence in breast cancer patients. Cancer 118:2603–2614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kachakova D, Mitkova A, Popov E et al (2015) Combinations of serum prostate-specific antigen and plasma expression levels of let-7c, miR-30c, miR-141, and miR-375 as potential better diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer. DNA Cell Biol 34:189–200PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kan CWS, Hahn MA, Gard GB et al (2012) Elevated levels of circulating microRNA-200 family members correlate with serous epithelial ovarian cancer. BMC Cancer 12:627PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kanaan Z, Roberts H, Eichenberger MR et al (2013) A plasma microRNA panel for detection of colorectal adenomas: a step toward more precise screening for colorectal cancer. Ann Surg 258:400–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kanemaru H, Fukushima S, Yamashita J et al (2011) The circulating microRNA-221 level in patients with malignant melanoma as a new tumor marker. J Dermatol Sci 61:187–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kawaguchi T, Komatsu S, Ichikawa D et al (2013) Clinical impact of circulating miR-221 in plasma of patients with pancreatic cancer. Br J Cancer 108:361–369PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kim SY, Jeon TY, Choi CI et al (2013) Validation of circulating miRNA biomarkers for predicting lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. J Mol Diagn 15:661–669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kirkali Z, Chan T, Manoharan M et al (2005) Bladder cancer: epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis. Urology 66:4–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kjersem JB, Ikdahl T, Lingjaerde OC et al (2014) Plasma microRNAs predicting clinical outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving first-line oxaliplatin-based treatment. Mol Oncol 8:59–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kleivi Sahlberg K, Bottai G, Naume B et al (2015) A serum microRNA signature predicts tumor relapse and survival in triple-negative breast cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res 21:1207–1214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Köberle V, Kronenberger B, Pleli T et al (2013) Serum microRNA-1 and microRNA-122 are prognostic markers in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Eur J Cancer 49:3442–3449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kodahl AR, Lyng MB, Binder H et al (2014) Novel circulating microRNA signature as a potential non-invasive multi-marker test in ER-positive early-stage breast cancer: a case control study. Mol Oncol 8:874–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kojima M, Sudo H, Kawauchi J et al (2015) MicroRNA markers for the diagnosis of pancreatic and biliary-tract cancers. PLoS ONE 10, e0118220PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Komatsu S, Ichikawa D, Takeshita H et al (2011) Circulating microRNAs in plasma of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer 105:104–111PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Komatsu S, Ichikawa D, Takeshita H et al (2012) Prognostic impact of circulating miR-21 and miR-375 in plasma of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Expert Opin Biol Ther 12(Suppl 1):S53–S59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Komatsu S, Ichikawa D, Tsujiura M et al (2013) Prognostic impact of circulating miR-21 in the plasma of patients with gastric carcinoma. Anticancer Res 33:271–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Komatsu S, Ichikawa D, Hirajima S et al (2014) Plasma microRNA profiles: identification of miR-25 as a novel diagnostic and monitoring biomarker in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer 111:1614–1624PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Komatsu S, Ichikawa D, Miyamae M et al (2015) Malignant potential in pancreatic neoplasm; new insights provided by circulating miR-223 in plasma. Expert Opin Biol Ther 15:773–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Konforte D, Diamandis EP (2013) Is early detection of cancer with circulating biomarkers feasible? Clin Chem 59:35–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kriebel S, Schmidt D, Holdenrieder S et al (2015) Analysis of tissue and serum microRNA expression in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial cancer. PLoS ONE 10, e0117284PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kurashige J, Kamohara H, Watanabe M et al (2012) Serum microRNA-21 is a novel biomarker in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. J Surg Oncol 106:188–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lai N, Wu D, Fang X et al (2015) Serum microRNA-210 as a potential noninvasive biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of glioma. Br J Cancer 112:1241–1246PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Le H-B, Zhu W-Y, Chen D-D et al (2012) Evaluation of dynamic change of serum miR-21 and miR-24 in pre- and post-operative lung carcinoma patients. Med Oncol 29:3190–3197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Li A, Omura N, Hong S-M et al (2010a) Pancreatic cancers epigenetically silence SIP1 and hypomethylate and overexpress miR-200a/200b in association with elevated circulating miR-200a and miR-200b levels. Cancer Res 70:5226–5237PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Li L-M, Hu Z-B, Zhou Z-X et al (2010b) Serum microRNA profiles serve as novel biomarkers for HBV infection and diagnosis of HBV-positive hepatocarcinoma. Cancer Res 70:9798–9807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Li A, Yu J, Kim H et al (2013a) MicroRNA array analysis finds elevated serum miR-1290 accurately distinguishes patients with low-stage pancreatic cancer from healthy and disease controls. Clin Cancer Res 19:3600–3610PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Li C, Li JF, Cai Q et al (2013b) MiRNA-199a-3p: a potential circulating diagnostic biomarker for early gastric cancer. J Surg Oncol 108:89–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Li M, Zhang Q, Wu L et al (2014) Serum miR-499 as a novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer. Oncol Rep 31:1961–1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Li X-X, Gao S-Y, Wang P-Y et al (2015) Reduced expression levels of let-7c in human breast cancer patients. Oncol Lett 9:1207–1212PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Lin Q, Mao W, Shu Y et al (2012) A cluster of specified microRNAs in peripheral blood as biomarkers for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer by stem-loop RT-PCR. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 138:85–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lin Q, Chen T, Lin Q et al (2013) Serum miR-19a expression correlates with worse prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. J Surg Oncol 107:767–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lin H-M, Castillo L, Mahon KL et al (2014a) Circulating microRNAs are associated with docetaxel chemotherapy outcome in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Br J Cancer 110:2462–2471PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lin M-S, Chen W-C, Huang J-X et al (2014b) Aberrant expression of microRNAs in serum may identify individuals with pancreatic cancer. Int J Clin Exp Med 7:5226–5234PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Liu C (2013) The role of microRNAs in tumors. Arch Pharm Res 36:1169–1177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Liu C-J, Kao S-Y, Tu H-F et al (2010) Increase of microRNA miR-31 level in plasma could be a potential marker of oral cancer. Oral Dis 16:360–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Liu R, Zhang C, Hu Z et al (2011) A five-microRNA signature identified from genome-wide serum microRNA expression profiling serves as a fingerprint for gastric cancer diagnosis. Eur J Cancer 47:784–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Liu H, Zhu L, Liu B et al (2012a) Genome-wide microRNA profiles identify miR-378 as a serum biomarker for early detection of gastric cancer. Cancer Lett 316:196–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Liu J, Gao J, Du Y et al (2012b) Combination of plasma microRNAs with serum CA19-9 for early detection of pancreatic cancer. Int J Cancer 131:683–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Liu R, Chen X, Du Y et al (2012c) Serum microRNA expression profile as a biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer. Clin Chem 58:610–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Liu X-G, Zhu WY, Huang YY et al (2012d) High expression of serum miR-21 and tumor miR-200c associated with poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer. Med Oncol 29:618–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Liu X, Luo H-N, Tian W-D et al (2013) Diagnostic and prognostic value of plasma microRNA deregulation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer Biol Ther 14:1133–1142PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Liu WJ, Xu Q, Sun LP et al (2014) Expression of serum let-7c, let-7i, and let-7f microRNA with its target gene, pepsinogen C, in gastric cancer and precancerous disease. Tumour Biol 36:3337–3343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD et al (2007) The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Acta Neuropathol 114:97–109PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lu X, Lu J (2015) The significance of detection of serum miR-423-5p and miR-484 for diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Clin Lab 61:187–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Lu Y-C, Chen Y-J, Wang H-M et al (2012) Oncogenic function and early detection potential of miRNA-10b in oral cancer as identified by microRNA profiling. Cancer Prev Res 5:665–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lu Y-C, Chang JT-C, Huang Y-C et al (2015) Combined determination of circulating miR-196a and miR-196b levels produces high sensitivity and specificity for early detection of oral cancer. Clin Biochem 48:115–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Luo J, Zhao Q, Zhang W et al (2014) A novel panel of microRNAs provides a sensitive and specific tool for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Mol Med Rep 10:785–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Ma Q, Wan G, Wang S et al (2014) Serum microRNA-205 as a novel biomarker for cervical cancer patients. Cancer Cell Int 14:81PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. MacLellan SA, Lawson J, Baik J et al (2012) Differential expression of miRNAs in the serum of patients with high-risk oral lesions. Cancer Med 1:268–274PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Mahn R, Heukamp LC, Rogenhofer S et al (2011) Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) in serum of patients with prostate cancer. Urology 77:1265.e9–1265.e16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Manterola L, Guruceaga E, Pérez-Larraya JG et al (2014) A small noncoding RNA signature found in exosomes of GBM patient serum as a diagnostic tool. Neuro Oncol 16:520–527PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Mar-Aguilar F, Mendoza-Ramírez JA, Malagón-Santiago I et al (2013) Serum circulating microRNA profiling for identification of potential breast cancer biomarkers. Dis Markers 34:163–169PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Margue C, Reinsbach S, Philippidou D et al (2015) Comparison of a healthy miRNome with melanoma patient miRNomes: are microRNAs suitable serum biomarkers for cancer? Oncotarget 6:12110–12127PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Meng F-L, Wang W, Jia W-D (2014) Diagnostic and prognostic significance of serum miR-24-3p in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Med Oncol 31:177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Moltzahn F, Olshen AB, Baehner L et al (2011) Microfluidic based multiplex qRT-PCR identifies diagnostic and prognostic microRNA signatures in sera of prostate cancer patients. Cancer Res 71:550–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Morimura R, Komatsu S, Ichikawa D et al (2011) Novel diagnostic value of circulating miR-18a in plasma of patients with pancreatic cancer. Br J Cancer 105:1733–1740PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Müller V, Gade S, Steinbach B et al (2014) Changes in serum levels of miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 in HER2-positive breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy: a translational research project within the Geparquinto trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat 147:61–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Ng EKO, Chong WWS, Jin H et al (2009) Differential expression of microRNAs in plasma of patients with colorectal cancer: a potential marker for colorectal cancer screening. Gut 58:1375–1381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ng EKO, Li R, Shin VY et al (2013) Circulating microRNAs as specific biomarkers for breast cancer detection. PLoS ONE 8, e53141PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Nguyen HCN, Xie W, Yang M et al (2013) Expression differences of circulating microRNAs in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer and low-risk, localized prostate cancer. Prostate 73:346–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Ogata-Kawata H, Izumiya M, Kurioka D et al (2014) Circulating exosomal microRNAs as biomarkers of colon cancer. PLoS ONE 9, e92921PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ono S, Oyama T, Lam S et al (2015) A direct plasma assay of circulating microRNA-210 of hypoxia can identify early systemic metastasis recurrence in melanoma patients. Oncotarget 6:7053–7064PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Pu X, Huang G, Guo H et al (2010) Circulating miR-221 directly amplified from plasma is a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker of colorectal cancer and is correlated with p53 expression. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 25:1674–1680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Qi P, Cheng S, Wang H et al (2011) Serum microRNAs as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. PLoS ONE 6, e28486PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Qi Z, Yang D-Y, Cao J (2014) Increased micro-RNA 17, 21, and 192 gene expressions improve early diagnosis in non-small cell lung cancer. Med Oncol 31:195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Qu KZ, Zhang K, Li H et al (2011) Circulating microRNAs as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Gastroenterol 45:355–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Ramzy I, Hasaballah M, Marzaban R et al (2015) Evaluation of microRNAs-29a, 92a and 145 in colorectal carcinoma as candidate diagnostic markers: an Egyptian pilot study. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. doi: 10.1016/j.clinre.2014.12.008 [Epub ahead of print]PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Rani S, Gately K, Crown J et al (2013) Global analysis of serum microRNAs as potential biomarkers for lung adenocarcinoma. Cancer Biol Ther 14:1104–1112PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Redova M, Poprach A, Nekvindova J et al (2012) Circulating miR-378 and miR-451 in serum are potential biomarkers for renal cell carcinoma. J Transl Med 10:55PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Resnick KE, Alder H, Hagan JP et al (2009) The detection of differentially expressed microRNAs from the serum of ovarian cancer patients using a novel real-time PCR platform. Gynecol Oncol 112:55–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Roth C, Rack B, Müller V et al (2010) Circulating microRNAs as blood-based markers for patients with primary and metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 12:R90PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Roth C, Stückrath I, Pantel K et al (2012) Low levels of cell-free circulating miR-361-3p and miR-625* as blood-based markers for discriminating malignant from benign lung tumors. PLoS ONE 7, e38248PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Scheffer A-R, Holdenrieder S, Kristiansen G et al (2014) Circulating microRNAs in serum: novel biomarkers for patients with bladder cancer? World J Urol 32:353–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Selth LA, Tilley WD, Butler LM (2012) Circulating microRNAs: macro-utility as markers of prostate cancer? Endocr Relat Cancer 19:R99–R113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Selth LA, Townley SL, Bert AG et al (2013) Circulating microRNAs predict biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer patients. Br J Cancer 109:641–650PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Shaker O, Maher M, Nassar Y et al (2015) Role of microRNAs -29b-2, −155, −197 and −205 as diagnostic biomarkers in serum of breast cancer females. Gene 560:77–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Shapira I, Oswald M, Lovecchio J et al (2014) Circulating biomarkers for detection of ovarian cancer and predicting cancer outcomes. Br J Cancer 110:976–983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Sharma P, Saraya A, Gupta P, Sharma R (2013) Decreased levels of circulating and tissue miR-107 in human esophageal cancer. Biomarkers 18:322–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Shen J, Liu Z, Todd NW et al (2011) Diagnosis of lung cancer in individuals with solitary pulmonary nodules by plasma microRNA biomarkers. BMC Cancer 11:374PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Shen J, Hruby GW, McKiernan JM et al (2012) Dysregulation of circulating microRNAs and prediction of aggressive prostate cancer. Prostate 72:1469–1477PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Shen J, Wang A, Wang Q et al (2013) Exploration of genome-wide circulating microRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma: MiR-483-5p as a potential biomarker. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 22:2364–2373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Shigoka M, Tsuchida A, Matsudo T et al (2010) Deregulation of miR-92a expression is implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma development. Pathol Int 60:351–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Shiiyama R, Fukushima S, Jinnin M et al (2013) Sensitive detection of melanoma metastasis using circulating microRNA expression profiles. Melanoma Res 23:366–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Shin YM, Yun J, Lee O-J et al (2014) Diagnostic value of circulating extracellular miR-134, miR-185, and miR-22 levels in lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion. Cancer Res Treat 46:178–185PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Shin VY, Siu JM, Cheuk I et al (2015) Circulating cell-free miRNAs as biomarker for triple-negative breast cancer. Br J Cancer 112:1751–1759PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Shivapurkar N, Weiner LM, Marshall JL et al (2014) Recurrence of early stage colon cancer predicted by expression pattern of circulating microRNAs. PLoS ONE 9, e84686PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A (2014) Cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin 64:9–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Silva J, García V, Zaballos Á et al (2011) Vesicle-related microRNAs in plasma of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients and correlation with survival. Eur Respir J 37:617–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sochor M, Basova P, Pesta M et al (2014) Oncogenic microRNAs: miR-155, miR-19a, miR-181b, and miR-24 enable monitoring of early breast cancer in serum. BMC Cancer 14:448PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Song M, Pan K, Su H et al (2012) Identification of serum microRNAs as novel non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer. PLoS ONE 7, e33608PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Song W-F, Wang L, Huang W-Y et al (2013) MiR-21 upregulation induced by promoter zone histone acetylation is associated with chemoresistance to gemcitabine and enhanced malignancy of pancreatic cancer cells. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 14:7529–7536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Srivastava A, Goldberger H, Dimtchev A et al (2014) Circulatory miR-628-5p is downregulated in prostate cancer patients. Tumour Biol 35:4867–4873PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Stiuso P, Potenza N, Lombardi A et al (2015) MicroRNA-423-5p promotes autophagy in cancer cells and is increased in serum from hepatocarcinoma patients treated with Sorafenib. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 4, e233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Su Z-X, Zhao J, Rong Z-H et al (2014) Diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating miR-18a in the plasma of patients with gastric cancer. Tumour Biol 35:12119–12125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Summerer I, Niyazi M, Unger K et al (2013) Changes in circulating microRNAs after radiochemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Radiat Oncol Lond Engl 8:296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Sun Y, Wang M, Lin G et al (2012) Serum microRNA-155 as a potential biomarker to track disease in breast cancer. PLoS ONE 7, e47003PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Takeshita N, Hoshino I, Mori M et al (2013) Serum microRNA expression profile: miR-1246 as a novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer 108:644–652PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Tan Y, Ge G, Pan T et al (2014) A serum microRNA panel as potential biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma related with hepatitis B virus. PLoS ONE 9, e107986PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Tanaka K, Miyata H, Yamasaki M et al (2013) Circulating miR-200c levels significantly predict response to chemotherapy and prognosis of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophageal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 20(Suppl 3):S607–S615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Teixeira AL, Dias F, Ferreira M et al (2014a) Combined influence of EGF + 61G > A and TGFB + 869T > C functional polymorphisms in renal cell carcinoma progression and overall survival: the link to plasma circulating miR-7 and miR-221/222 expression. PLoS ONE 10, e0103258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Teixeira AL, Ferreira M, Silva J et al (2014b) Higher circulating expression levels of miR-221 associated with poor overall survival in renal cell carcinoma patients. Tumour Biol 35:4057–4066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Toiyama Y, Hur K, Tanaka K et al (2014) Serum miR-200c is a novel prognostic and metastasis-predictive biomarker in patients with colorectal cancer. Ann Surg 259:735–743PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Torres A, Torres K, Pesci A et al (2012) Deregulation of miR-100, miR-99a and miR-199b in tissues and plasma coexists with increased expression of mTOR kinase in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. BMC Cancer 12:369PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Torres A, Torres K, Pesci A et al (2013) Diagnostic and prognostic significance of miRNA signatures in tissues and plasma of endometrioid endometrial carcinoma patients. Int J Cancer 132:1633–1645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Tsai K-W, Liao Y-L, Wu C-W et al (2012) Aberrant expression of miR-196a in gastric cancers and correlation with recurrence. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 51:394–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Tsujiura M, Ichikawa D, Komatsu S et al (2010) Circulating microRNAs in plasma of patients with gastric cancers. Br J Cancer 102:1174–1179PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Tsukamoto O, Miura K, Mishima H et al (2014) Identification of endometrioid endometrial carcinoma-associated microRNAs in tissue and plasma. Gynecol Oncol 132:715–721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Valladares-Ayerbes M, Reboredo M, Medina-Villaamil V et al (2012) Circulating miR-200c as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for gastric cancer. J Transl Med 10:186PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Wang L-G, Gu J (2012) Serum microRNA-29a is a promising novel marker for early detection of colorectal liver metastasis. Cancer Epidemiol 36:e61–e67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Wang J, Chen J, Chang P et al (2009) MicroRNAs in plasma of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients as novel blood-based biomarkers of disease. Cancer Prev Res 2:807–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Wang ZX, Bian HB, Wang JR et al (2011) Prognostic significance of serum miRNA-21 expression in human non-small cell lung cancer. J Surg Oncol 104:847–851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Wang H, Tan G, Dong L et al (2012a) Circulating MiR-125b as a marker predicting chemoresistance in breast cancer. PLoS ONE 7, e34210PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Wang Q, Li P, Li A et al (2012b) Plasma specific miRNAs as predictive biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of glioma. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 31:97PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Wang M, Gu H, Wang S et al (2012c) Circulating miR-17-5p and miR-20a: molecular markers for gastric cancer. Mol Med Rep 5:1514–1520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Wang Q, Huang Z, Ni S et al (2012d) Plasma miR-601 and miR-760 are novel biomarkers for the early detection of colorectal cancer. PLoS ONE 7, e44398PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Wang T, Lv M, Shen S et al (2012e) Cell-free microRNA expression profiles in malignant effusion associated with patient survival in non-small cell lung cancer. PLoS ONE 7, e43268PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Wang P-Y, Gong H-T, Li B-F et al (2013) Higher expression of circulating miR-182 as a novel biomarker for breast cancer. Oncol Lett 6:1681–1686PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  192. Wang J, Huang S, Zhao M et al (2014a) Identification of a circulating microRNA signature for colorectal cancer detection. PLoS ONE 9, e87451PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Wang L, Chen Y-J, Xu K et al (2014b) Circulating microRNAs as a fingerprint for endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma. PLoS ONE 9, e110767PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Wang WT, Zhao YN, Yan JX et al (2014c) Differentially expressed microRNAs in the serum of cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients before and after surgery. J Hematol Oncol 7:6PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Wang C, Hu J, Lu M et al (2015a) A panel of five serum miRNAs as a potential diagnostic tool for early-stage renal cell carcinoma. Sci Rep 5:7610PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Wang F, Lou J-F, Cao Y et al (2015b) miR-638 is a new biomarker for outcome prediction of non-small cell lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Exp Mol Med 47Google Scholar
  197. Wang RJ, Zheng YH, Wang P et al (2015c) Serum miR-125a-5p, miR-145 and miR-146a as diagnostic biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 8:765–771PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. Warnecke-Eberz U, Chon S-H, Hölscher AH et al (2015) Exosomal onco-miRs from serum of patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus: comparison of miRNA profiles of exosomes and matching tumor. Tumour Biol doi:. doi: 10.1007/s13277-015-3112-0 [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  199. Watahiki A, Macfarlane RJ, Gleave ME et al (2013) Plasma miRNAs as biomarkers to identify patients with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. Int J Mol Sci 14:7757–7770PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Wei X, Chen D, Lv T et al (2014) Serum microRNA-125b as a potential biomarker for glioma diagnosis. Mol Neurobiol. doi: 10.1007/s12035-014-8993-1 [Epub ahead of print]PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. Weiderpass E, Labrèche F (2012) Malignant tumors of the female reproductive system. Saf Health Work 3:166–180PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Wen Y, Han J, Chen J et al (2015) Plasma miRNAs as early biomarkers for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Cancer 137:1679–1690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Whited JD, Grichnik JM (1998) The rational clinical examination. Does this patient have a mole or a melanoma? JAMA 279:696–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Wong T-S, Liu X-B, Wong BY-H et al (2008) Mature miR-184 as potential oncogenic microRNA of squamous cell carcinoma of tongue. Clin Cancer Res 14:2588–2592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Wu X, Somlo G, Yu Y et al (2012) De novo sequencing of circulating miRNAs identifies novel markers predicting clinical outcome of locally advanced breast cancer. J Transl Med 10:42PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Wu C, Cao Y, He Z et al (2014a) Serum levels of miR-19b and miR-146a as prognostic biomarkers for non-small cell lung cancer. Tohoku J Exp Med 232:85–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Wu C, Li M, Hu C, Duan H (2014b) Clinical significance of serum miR-223, miR-25 and miR-375 in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Mol Biol Rep 41:1257–1266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Wu C, Wang C, Guan X et al (2014c) Diagnostic and prognostic implications of a serum miRNA panel in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PLoS ONE 9, e92292PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Wu J, Li L, Jiang C (2014d) Identification and evaluation of serum microRNA-29 family for glioma screening. Mol Neurobiol. doi: 10.1007/s12035-014-8937-9 [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  210. Wulfken LM, Moritz R, Ohlmann C et al (2011) MicroRNAs in renal cell carcinoma: diagnostic implications of serum miR-1233 levels. PLoS ONE 6, e25787PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Xie Y, Yao Q, Butt AM et al (2014) Expression profiling of serum microRNA-101 in HBV-associated chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Biol Ther 15:1248–1255PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Xin S-Y, Feng X-S, Zhou L-Q et al (2014) Reduced expression of circulating microRNA-218 in gastric cancer and correlation with tumor invasion and prognosis. World J Gastroenterol 20:6906–6911PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Xu J, Wu C, Che X et al (2011) Circulating microRNAs, miR-21, miR-122, and miR-223, in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or chronic hepatitis. Mol Carcinog 50:136–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Xu Y-Z, Xi Q-H, Ge W-L, Zhang X-Q (2013) Identification of serum microRNA-21 as a biomarker for early detection and prognosis in human epithelial ovarian cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 14:1057–1060PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Xu L, Huang Y, Chen D et al (2014a) Downregulation of miR-21 increases cisplatin sensitivity of non-small-cell lung cancer. Cancer Genet 207:214–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Xu L, Li M, Wang M et al (2014b) The expression of microRNA-375 in plasma and tissue is matched in human colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer 14:714PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Yaman Agaoglu F, Kovancilar M, Dizdar Y et al (2011) Investigation of miR-21, miR-141, and miR-221 in blood circulation of patients with prostate cancer. Tumour Biol 32:583–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Yan H-J, Ma J-Y, Wang L, Gu W (2015) Expression and significance of circulating microRNA-31 in lung cancer patients. Med Sci Monit 21:722–726PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Yang C-C, Hung PS, Wang PW et al (2011) miR-181 as a putative biomarker for lymph-node metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Pathol Med 40:397–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Yang C, Wang C, Chen X et al (2013) Identification of seven serum microRNAs from a genome-wide serum microRNA expression profile as potential noninvasive biomarkers for malignant astrocytomas. Int J Cancer 132:116–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Yang JS, Li BJ, Lu HW et al (2015) Serum miR-152, miR-148a, miR-148b, and miR-21 as novel biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer screening. Tumour Biol 36:3035–3042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Yin J, Hou P, Wu Z et al (2015) Circulating miR-375 and miR-199a-3p as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Tumour Biol. doi: 10.1007/s13277-015-3092-0 [Epub ahead of print]PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  223. Yong FL, Law CW, Wang CW (2013) Potentiality of a triple microRNA classifier: miR-193a-3p, miR-23a and miR-338-5p for early detection of colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer 13:280PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Yu J, Wang Y, Dong R et al (2012) Circulating microRNA-218 was reduced in cervical cancer and correlated with tumor invasion. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 138:671–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Yuan D, Li K, Zhu K et al (2015) Plasma miR-183 predicts recurrence and prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer Biol Ther 16:268–275PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Yuxia M, Zhennan T, Wei Z (2012) Circulating miR-125b is a novel biomarker for screening non-small-cell lung cancer and predicts poor prognosis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 138:2045–2050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Zanutto S, Pizzamiglio S, Ghilotti M et al (2014) Circulating miR-378 in plasma: a reliable, haemolysis-independent biomarker for colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 110:1001–1007PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Zeng X, Xiang J, Wu M et al (2012) Circulating miR-17, miR-20a, miR-29c, and miR-223 combined as non-invasive biomarkers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PLoS ONE 7, e46367PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Zeng R, Zhang W, Yan X et al (2013) Down-regulation of miRNA-30a in human plasma is a novel marker for breast cancer. Med Oncol 30:477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Zhai R, Wei Y, Su L et al (2015) Whole-miRNome profiling identifies prognostic serum miRNAs in esophageal adenocarcinoma: the influence of Helicobacter pylori infection status. Carcinogenesis 36:87–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Zhan M, Li Y, Hu B et al (2014) Serum microRNA-210 as a predictive biomarker for treatment response and prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing transarterial chemoembolization. J Vasc Interv Radiol 25:1279–1287.e1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Zhang Y (2013) Epidemiology of esophageal cancer. World J Gastroenterol 19:5598–5606PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Zhang C, Wang C, Chen X et al (2010) Expression profile of microRNAs in serum: a fingerprint for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Chem 56:1871–1879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Zhang T, Wang Q, Zhao D et al (2011) The oncogenetic role of microRNA-31 as a potential biomarker in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Sci 121:437–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Zhang W-H, Gui J-H, Wang C-Z et al (2012) The identification of miR-375 as a potential biomarker in distal gastric adenocarcinoma. Oncol Res 20:139–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Zhang H-L, Qin X-J, Cao D-L et al (2013a) An elevated serum miR-141 level in patients with bone-metastatic prostate cancer is correlated with more bone lesions. Asian J Androl 15:231–235PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Zhang H, Su Y, Xu F et al (2013b) Circulating microRNAs in relation to EGFR status and survival of lung adenocarcinoma in female non-smokers. PLoS ONE 8, e81408PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Zhang J, Zhang K, Bi M et al (2014) Circulating microRNA expressions in colorectal cancer as predictors of response to chemotherapy. Anticancer Drugs 25:346–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Zhang H, Li B, Zhao H, Chang J (2015a) The expression and clinical significance of serum miR-205 for breast cancer and its role in detection of human cancers. Int J Clin Exp Med 8:3034–3043PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  240. Zhang R, Pang B, Xin T et al (2015b) Plasma miR-221/222 family as novel descriptive and prognostic biomarkers for glioma. Mol Neurobiol. doi: 10.1007/s12035-014-9079-9 [ePub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  241. Zhao H, Shen J, Medico L et al (2010) A pilot study of circulating miRNAs as potential biomarkers of early stage breast cancer. PLoS ONE 5, e13735PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Zhao R, Wu J, Jia W et al (2011) Plasma miR-221 as a predictive biomarker for chemoresistance in breast cancer patients who previously received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Onkologie 34:675–680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Zhao F-L, Hu G-D, Wang X-F et al (2012) Serum overexpression of microRNA-10b in patients with bone metastatic primary breast cancer. J Int Med Res 40:859–866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Zhao A, Li G, Péoc’h M et al (2013a) Serum miR-210 as a novel biomarker for molecular diagnosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Exp Mol Pathol 94:115–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Zhao S, Yao D, Chen J et al (2013b) Circulating miRNA-20a and miRNA-203 for screening lymph node metastasis in early stage cervical cancer. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 17:631–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Zhao F, Dou Y, Wang X et al (2014a) Serum microRNA-195 is down-regulated in breast cancer: a potential marker for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Mol Biol Rep 41:5913–5922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Zhao Y-N, Chen G-S, Hong SJ (2014b) Circulating MicroRNAs in gynecological malignancies: from detection to prediction. Exp Hematol Oncol 3:14PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Zhao Z, He J, Zhang J et al (2014c) Dysregulated miR1254 and miR579 for cardiotoxicity in patients treated with bevacizumab in colorectal cancer. Tumour Biol 35:5227–5235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Zheng D, Haddadin S, Wang Y et al (2011) Plasma microRNAs as novel biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 4:575–586PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  250. Zheng H, Zhang L, Zhao Y et al (2013a) Plasma miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for ovarian cancer. PLoS ONE 8, e77853PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Zheng J, Dong P, Gao S et al (2013b) High expression of serum miR-17-5p associated with poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology 60:549–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Zhou J, Yu L, Gao X et al (2011) Plasma microRNA panel to diagnose hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 29:4781–4788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Zhu W, Qin W, Atasoy U et al (2009) Circulating microRNAs in breast cancer and healthy subjects. BMC Res Notes 2:89PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Zhu W, Liu X, He J et al (2011) Overexpression of members of the microRNA-183 family is a risk factor for lung cancer: a case control study. BMC Cancer 11:393PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Zhu C, Ren C, Han J et al (2014a) A five-microRNA panel in plasma was identified as potential biomarker for early detection of gastric cancer. Br J Cancer 110:2291–2299PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Zhu W, He J, Chen D et al (2014b) Expression of miR-29c, miR-93, and miR-429 as potential biomarkers for detection of early stage non-small lung cancer. PLoS ONE 9, e87780PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Zhu W-Y, Luo B, An J-Y et al (2014c) Differential expression of miR-125a-5p and let-7e predicts the progression and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Invest 32:394–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Zhuang L, Meng Z (2015) Serum miR-224 reflects stage of hepatocellular carcinoma and predicts survival. Biomed Res Int 2015:731781PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Zhuang L, Xu L, Wang P et al (2015) Serum miR-128-2 serves as a prognostic marker for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. PLoS ONE 10, e0117274PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central European Institute of TechnologyMasaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations