Hidden Markov Models for Visual Processing of Marketing Leaflets

Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1206)


The study shows the application of hidden Markov models (HMMs) for the analysis of eye ball movement fixations. The registered visual activity concerns pairwise comparisons of simple advertisement leaflets, differed in their layout orientation and captions’ styles. A simulation experiment was conducted to specify the most appropriate HMMs in terms of information criteria. Six best models were discussed in detail. The identified hidden states together with transition and emission probabilities were the basis of subjects’ visual behavior hypothetical interpretations.


Eye tracking Cognitive modeling Visual presentation Digital signage Advertisement Human factors Ergonomics 



The research was partially financially supported by Polish National Science Centre Grant No. 2017/27/B/HS4/01876. The experiment was conducted with an eye-tracking system made available by the Laboratory of Information Systems Quality of Use which is a part of a BIBLIOTECH project co-funded by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund under the Operational Programme Innovative Economy 2007–2013.


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Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Computer Science and ManagementWrocław University of Science and TechnologyWrocławPoland

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