Assessment of Human-Likeness and Anthropomorphism of Robots: A Literature Review

  • Nina RothsteinEmail author
  • John Kounios
  • Hasan Ayaz
  • Ewart J. de Visser
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1201)


Robots are a human-like product. To address the challenge of measuring responses to an object perceived as part product – part entity, researchers have evaluated robot appearance based on human-likeness. This review presents research that views human-likeness through the lens of the psychological construct of anthropomorphism. This review also briefly considers contributions of two related psychological construct of human-likeness: media equation and uncanny valley.


Human robot interaction Human-likeness Anthropomorphizing 



Authors would like to acknowledge Jan Watson, Marlon Gieser, and Levi Lightcap, for their thoughtful edits on this paper. And, authors would like to thank Molly Martini, Mikey Siegel, and Gabriele Trovato for allowing the use their images.


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Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nina Rothstein
    • 1
    Email author
  • John Kounios
    • 1
  • Hasan Ayaz
    • 1
  • Ewart J. de Visser
    • 1
  1. 1.Drexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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