Advertisement

Individual and State

  • Danny Frederick
Chapter
  • 8 Downloads
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Classical Liberalism book series (PASTCL)

Abstract

After a brief history of the problem of the state and its political authority, I steer between individualism and collectivism by proposing an account of the state as a set of relations. The state is an institution represented by persons (its officers); but it was not instituted, it evolved. Morality demands a state with the rights and obligations to enforce persons’ obligations to each other, and to impose new obligations on persons to secure freedom. The only legitimate state is a liberal state. Jeremy Waldron’s defence of laws against “hate speech” is rejected. I criticise the views of Bishop Berkeley and of Jason Brennan while arguing that, barring specific agreements, persons have no obligations to obey the state insofar as it is illiberal. Persons have obligations to the state to pay fair taxes and to obey legitimate laws. Acknowledging that persons also have obligations to the state not to commit suicide or to become a permanent slave enables us to dispense with the dubious notion of a person’s obligations to herself. Other issues discussed are abortion, the treatment of animals and humans that are not persons, social welfare, equality, inheritance, and how my theory contrasts with moral theories of a consequentialist type.

References

  1. Anomaly, Jonathan. 2015. Public Goods and Government Action. Politics, Philosophy & Economics 14 (2): 109–128.Google Scholar
  2. Aristotle. 1955. Ethics. Trans. J A.K. Thomson. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  3. ———. 1962. Politics. Trans. T.A. Sinclair. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  4. ———. 2007. Prior Analytics. Trans. A.J. Jenkinson. Adelaide: University of Adelaide. eBooks@Adelaide. http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/a/aristotle/a8pra/. Accessed 3 Jan 2011.
  5. ———. 2015. Categories. Trans. E.M. Edghill. Adelaide: University of Adelaide. eBooks@Adelaide. https://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/a/aristotle/categories/. Accessed 29 Oct 2019.
  6. Barnett, Randy. 1977. Whither Anarchy. Journal of Libertarian Studies 1 (1): 15–21.Google Scholar
  7. Berkeley, George. 1953. Passive Obedience. In The Works of George Berkeley, ed. A.A. Luce and T.E. Jessop, vol. VI, 15–46. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons.Google Scholar
  8. Bradley, F.H. 1951. Ethical Studies. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  9. Brennan, Jason. 2016. When May We Kill Government Agents? In Defense of Moral Parity. Social Philosophy and Policy 32 (2): 40–61.Google Scholar
  10. Caplan, Bryan. 2015. Where Are the Pro-life Libertarians? EconLog, April 22. https://www.econlib.org/archives/2015/04/where_are_the_p.html. Accessed 10 Dec 2019.
  11. Childs, Roy. 1977. The Invisible Hand Strikes Back. Journal of Libertarian Studies 1 (1): 23–33.Google Scholar
  12. Emmett, Dorothy. 1966. Rules, Roles and Relations. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  13. Feyerabend, Paul. 1981. On the Interpretation of Scientific Theories. In Realism, Rationalism and Scientific Method, 37–43. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Findlay, J.N. 1970. The Teaching of Meaning. In Ascent to the Absolute, 78–89. London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  15. Frederick, Danny. 2010. A Competitive Market in Human Organs. Libertarian Papers 2: 27.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 2011. Pornography and Freedom. Kritike 5 (2): 84–95.Google Scholar
  17. ———. 2013. Social Contract Theory Should Be Abandoned. Rationality, Markets and Morals 4: 178–189.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 2014. Voluntary Slavery. Las Torres de Lucca 4: 115–137.Google Scholar
  19. ———. 2016a. The Good Bishop and the Explanation of Political Authority. De Ethica 3 (2): 23–35.Google Scholar
  20. ———. 2016b. Defective Equilibrium. Organon F 23 (4): 443–459.Google Scholar
  21. ———. 2016c. ‘Objectification’ and Obfuscation. Kritike 10 (2): 173–190.Google Scholar
  22. ———. 2016d. Freedom: Positive, Negative, Expressive. Reason Papers 38 (2): 39–63.Google Scholar
  23. ———. 2019. O’Hear on Popper, Criticism and the Open Society. Cosmos + Taxis 6 (6+7): 43–48.Google Scholar
  24. ———. Forthcoming. Are Institutions Created by Collective Acceptance? Journal of Value Inquiry. Published online before print, 21 October 2019: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10790-019-09719-z
  25. Frederick, Danny, and Mark Friedman. 2020. The Liberal Defense of Immigration Control. Cosmos + Taxis 8 (2+3): 23–38.Google Scholar
  26. Friedman, Mark. 2011. Nozick’s Libertarian Project. London: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
  27. Glaister, Stephen, and Daniel Graham. 2004. Pricing Our Roads. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.Google Scholar
  28. Green, David. 1993. Reinventing Civil Society. London: IEA Health and Welfare Unit.Google Scholar
  29. ———. 1996. Community Without Politics. London: IEA Health and Welfare Unit.Google Scholar
  30. Hegel, G.W.F. 2001. The Philosophy of Right. Trans. S.W. Dyde. Kitchener, ON: Batoche Books.Google Scholar
  31. Hibbs, John. 1993. On the Move…A Market for Mobility on the Roads. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.Google Scholar
  32. Hobbes, Thomas. 1962. Leviathan. Ed. John Plamenatz. Glasgow: Fontana.Google Scholar
  33. Hume, David. 1985. Of National Characters. In Essays: Moral, Political, and Literary, 197–215. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.Google Scholar
  34. Kant, Immanuel. 2007a. Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime. In Anthropology, History, and Education. Ed. Günter Zöller and Robert Louden, Trans. Robert Louden, 23–62. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. ———. 2007b. On the Different Races of Human Beings. In Anthropology, History, and Education. Ed. Günter Zöller and Robert Louden. Trans. Robert Louden, 82–97. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. ———. 2007c. On the Use of Teleological Principles in Philosophy. In Anthropology, History, and Education. Ed. Günter Zöller and Robert Louden, Trans. Robert Louden, 192–218. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Kuhn, Thomas. 1977. Second Thoughts on Paradigms. In The Essential Tension, 293–319. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  38. Locke, John. 1924. Two Treatises of Government. London: Dent and Sons.Google Scholar
  39. MacIntyre, Alasdair. 2007. After Virtue. 3rd ed. Notre-Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  40. Mill, John Stuart. 2003. On Liberty, in Utilitarianism and On Liberty. Ed. Mary Warnock, 2nd ed., 88–180. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  41. Nozick, Robert. 1974. Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  42. Ostrom, Elinor. 2010. Beyond Markets and States. American Economic Review 100 (3): 641–672.Google Scholar
  43. Paul, Jeffrey. 1982. The Withering of the Minimal State. In Reading Nozick, ed. Jeffrey Paul, 68–76. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  44. Piaget, Jean. 1929. The Child’s Conception of the World. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  45. Plato. 1974. The Republic. Trans. Desmond Lee, 2nd ed., revised. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  46. Popper, Karl. 1959. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  47. ———. 1966. The Open Society and its Enemies, 5th, revised, ed. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  48. ———. 1999. All Life is Problem Solving. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Rawls, John. 1999. A Theory of Justice, revised ed. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  50. Rothbard, Murray. 1977. Robert Nozick and the Immaculate Conception of the State. Journal of Libertarian Studies 1 (1): 45–57.Google Scholar
  51. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. 1913. The Social Contract. Trans. G.D.H. Cole. London: Dent and Sons.Google Scholar
  52. Russell, Bertrand. 1980. The Problems of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Samuelson, Paul. 1954. The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure. Review of Economics and Statistics 36 (4): 387–389.Google Scholar
  54. Strossen, Nadine. 2018. Hate. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Thomson, Judith. 1971. A Defense of Abortion. Philosophy and Public Affairs 1 (1): 47–66.Google Scholar
  56. ———. 1990. The Realm of Rights. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Waldron, Jeremy. 2012. The Harm in Hate Speech. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Wolff, Jonathan. 1991. Robert Nozick. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Wolff, Robert Paul. 1982. Robert Nozick’s Derivation of the Minimal State. In Reading Nozick, ed. Jeffrey Paul, 77–104. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danny Frederick
    • 1
  1. 1.Independent ScholarYeovilUK

Personalised recommendations