Infectious Dental Implant Complications

  • Bedrettin Cem Sener


Implant-related pathologic bone loss is the most common problem but not limited only to infectious diseases. Before focusing on peri-implant disease treatment; predisposing local factors, such as cement remnants, bruxism, and systemic factors must be evaluated and eliminated before local treatment attempt. Peri-implant infections are reversible while limited in gingival tissue level. However, irreversible and progressive when infiltrates to connective and bone tissue. The treatment of peri-implant infections must cover the removal of gross debris (debridement), and eradication of biofilm from the implant surface to achieve bone regeneration. The bone regeneration following those steps can be achieved with bone grafting or guided bone regeneration techniques. Mobility of the implant indicates the removal of the implant. A biopsy must be obtained from those peri-implant diseases, which do not respond to any of these treatment modalities or have an unusual clinical appearance.


Peri-implantitis Treatment Debridement Decontamination Diagnosis Regeneration Implantoplasty Retrograde peri-implantitis Corrosion 


  1. 1.
    Sanz M, Noguerol B, Sanz-Sanchez I, Hammerle CHF, Schliephake H, Renouard F, Sicilia A, Steering Committee, Cordaro L, Jung R, Klinge B, Valentini P, Alcoforado G, Ornekol T, Pjetursson B, Sailer I, Rochietta I, Manuel Navarro J, Heitz-Mayfield L, Francis. European Association for Osseointegration Delphi study on the trends in implant dentistry in Europe for the year 2030. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2019;30(5):476–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Locca O. Evidence based implant-dentistry. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chrcanovic BR, Kisch J, Albrektsson T, Wennerberg A. A retrospective study on clinical and radiological outcomes oforal implants in patients followed up for a minimum of 20 years. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2018;20(2):199–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baires-Campos F, Jimbo R, Bonfante EA, Oliveira MTF, Moura C, Barbosa DZ, Coelho PG. Drilling dimension effects in early stages of osseointegration. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2015;20(4):e471–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stacchi C, Vercellotti T, Torelli L, Furlan F, Di Lenarda R. Changes in implant stability using different site preparation techniques: twist drills versus piezosurgery. A single-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2013;15(2):188–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Scherer U, Stoetzer M, Ruecker M, Gellrich NC, von See C. Template-guided vs non-guided drilling in site preparation of dental implants. Clin Oral Investig. 2015;19(6):1339–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Resnik RR, Misch CE. Misch’s avoiding complications in oral implantology. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lioubavina-Hack N, Lang NP, Karring T. Significance of primary stability for osseointegration of dental implants. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2016;17(3):244–50.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gahona O, Granic X, Antunez C, Domancic S, Díaz-Narváez V, Utsman R. Insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis (ISQ)as predictor methods of implant osseointegration. J Osseointegr. 2018;10:103–7.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Han J, Sun Y, Wang C. Effect of integration patterns around implant neck on stress distribution in peri-implant bone: a finite element analysis. J Prosthodont. 2017;26(6):549–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wawrzinek C, Sommer T, Fischer-Brandies H. Microdamage in cortical bone due to the overtightening of orthodontic microscrews. J Orofac Orthop. 2008;69(2):121–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berardini M, Trisi P, Sinjari B, Rutjes AW, Caputi S. The effects of high insertion torque versus low insertion torque on marginal bone resorption and implant failure rates: a systematic review with meta-analyses. Implant Dent. 2016;25(4):532–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Insua A, Monje A, Wang HL, Miron RJ. Basis of bone metabolism around dental implants during osseointegration and peri-implant bone loss. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2017;105(7):2075–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Albrektsson T, Becker W, Coli P, Jemt T, Mölne J, Sennerby L. Bone loss around oral and orthopedic implants: an immunologically based condition. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2019;21(4):786–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cehreli MC, Karasoy D, Kökat AM, Akça K, Eckert S. A systematic review of marginal bone loss around implants retaining or supporting overdentures. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2010;25(2):266–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eriksson A, Albrektsson T, Grane B, McQueen D. Thermal injury to bone. A vital-microscopic description of heat effects. Int J Oral Surg. 1982;11(2):115–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sener BC, Dergin G, Gursoy B, Kelesoglu E, Slih I. Effects of irrigation temperature on heat control in vitro at different drilling depths. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009;20(3):294–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Möhlhenrich SC, Modabber A, Steiner T, Mitchell DA, Hölzle F. Heat generation and drill wear during dental implant site preparation: systematic review. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015;53(8):679–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yamaba T, Suganami T, Ikebe K, Sogo M, Maeda Y, Wada M. The evaluation of the heat generated by the implant osteotomy preparation using a modified method of the measuring temperature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2015;30(4):820–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gehrke SA, Aramburú Júnior JS, Pérez-Albacete Martínez C, Ramirez Fernandez MP, Maté Sánchez de Val JE, Calvo-Guirado JL. The influence of drill length and irrigation system on heat production during osteotomy preparation for dental implants: an ex vivo study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2018;29(7):772–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Migliorati M, Amorfini L, Signori A, Barberis F, Silvestrini Biavati A, Benedicenti S. Internal bone temperature change during guided surgery preparations for dental implants: an in vitro study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2013;28(6):1464–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Korsch M, Walther W. Peri-implantitis associated with type of cement: a retrospective analysis of different types of cement and their clinical correlation to the peri-implant tissue. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2015;17(Suppl 2):e434–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Korsch M, Obst U, Walther W. Cement-associated peri-implantitis: a retrospective clinical observational study of fixed implant-supported restorations using a methacrylate cement. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014;25:797–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Present S, Levine RA. Techniques to control or avoid cement around implant-retained restorations. Compendium. 2013;34:432–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Galli C, Macaluso G, Passeri G. Serotonin: a novel bonemass controller may have implications for alveolar bone. J Negat Results Biomed. 2013;12:12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Koura SM, Salama M, El-Hussiny M, Khalil MEA, Lotfy A, Hassan SA, Gad Elhak SA, Sobh MA. Fluoxetine induces direct inhibitory effects on mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteoprogenitor cells independent of serotonin concentration. Mol Med Rep. 2019;19(4):2611–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nam SS, Lee JC, Kim HJ, Park JW, Lee JM, Suh JY, Um HS, Kim JY, Lee Y, Kim Y. Serotonin inhibits osteoblast differ-entiation and bone regeneration in rats. J Periodontol. 2016;87(4):461–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wu X, Al-Abedalla K, Rastikerdar E, Abi Nader S, Daniel NG, Nicolau B, Tamimi F. Selective serotonin reuptakeinhibitors and the risk of osseointegrated implant failure:a cohort study. J Dent Res. 2014;93(11):1054–61.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Altay MA, Sindel A, Özalp Ö, Yildirimyan N, Kader D, Bilge U, Baur DA. Does the intake of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors negatively affect dental implant osseointegration? A retrospective study. J Oral Implantol. 2018;44(4):260–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jinno Y, Jimbo R, Hjalmarsson J, Johansson K, Stavropoulos A, Becktor JP. Impact of surface contamination of implants with saliva during placement in augmented bone defects in sheep calvaria. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019;57(1):41–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Egawa M, Miura T, Kato T, Saito A, Yoshinari M. In vitro adherence of periodontopathic bacteria to zirconia and titanium surfaces. Dent Mater J. 2013;32:101–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Smith K, Araoye I, Gilbert S, Waites K, Camins B, Conklin M, Ponce B. Is retained bone debris in cannulated orthopedic instruments sterile after autoclaving? Am J Infect Control. 2018;46(9):1009–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Parnia F, Hafezeqoran A, Mahmoudian B, Saati E, Moslehifard E, Koodaryan R, Mahboub F. Comparison of different cleaning procedures of implant drills using TC99. Implant Dent. 2013;22(6):627–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vassey M, Budge C, Poolman T, Jones P, Perrett D, Nayuni N, Bennett P, Groves P, Smith A, Fulford M, Marsh PD, Walker JT, Sutton JM, Raven ND. A quantitative assessment of residual protein levels on dental instruments reprocessed by manual, ultrasonic and automated cleaning methods. Br Dent J. 2011;210(9):E14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    de Oliveira-Neto OB, Barbosa FT, de Sousa-Rodrigues CF, de Lima FJC. Quality assessment of systematic reviews regarding immediate placement of dental implants into infected sites: an overview. J Prosthet Dent. 2017;117(5):601–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Anitua E, Piñas L, Alkhraisat MH. Long-term outcomes of immediate implant placement into infected sockets in association with immediate loading: a retrospective cohort study. J Periodontol. 2016;87(10):1135–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Marshall G, Canullo L, Logan RM, Rossi-Fedele G. Histopathological and microbiological findings associated with retrograde peri-implantitis of extra-radicular endodontic origin: a systematic and critical review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019;pii:S0901-5027(19)31109-9. Scholar
  38. 38.
    Troeltzsch M, Pache C, Troeltzsch M, Kaeppler G, Ehrenfeld M, Otto S, Probst F. Etiology and clinical characteristics of symptomatic unilateral maxillary sinusitis: a review of 174 cases. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2015;43(8):1522–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Park W-B, Han J-Y, Se-Lim O. Maxillary sinusitis associated with peri-implantitis at sinus floor augmented sites: case series. Implant Dent. 2019;
  40. 40.
    van de Loo S, Kessler P, Lethaus B. Spontaneous transmaxillary-transnasal implant loss: a case report. Implant Dent. 2013;22(2):117–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Anitua E, Alkhraisat MH. Minimally invasive removal of nonmobile zygomatic dental implants affected by peri-implantitis and chronic sinusitis. J Oral Implantol. 2017;43(5):392–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jensen OT, Adams M, Cottam JR, Ringeman J. Occult peri-implant oroantral fistulae: posterior maxillary peri-implantitis/sinusitis of zygomatic or dental implant origin. Treatment and prevention with bone morphogenetic protein-2/absorbable collagen sponge sinus grafting. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2013;28(6):e512–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chen YW, Huang CC, Chang PH, Chen CW, Wu CC, Fu CH, Lee TJ. The characteristics and new treatment paradigm of dental implant-related chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2013;27(3):237–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Aleksandrowicz P, Kusa-Podkańska M, Grabowska K, Kotuła L, Szkatuła-Łupina A, Wysokińska-Miszczuk J. Extra-sinus zygomatic implants to avoid chronic sinusitis and prosthetic arch malposition: 12 years of experience. J Oral Implantol. 2019;45(1):73–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chirilă L, Rotaru C, Filipov I, Săndulescu M. Management of acute maxillary sinusitis after sinus bone grafting procedures with simultaneous dental implants placement – a retrospective study. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16(Suppl 1):94.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Park WB, Han JY, Oh SL. Maxillary sinusitis associated with peri-implantitis at sinus floor augmented sites: case series. Implant Dent. 2019;28(5):484–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pokrowiecki R, Mielczarek A, Zaręba T, Tyski S. Oral microbiome and peri-implant diseases: where are we now? Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2017;29(13):1529–42.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rakic M, Grusovin MG, Canullo L. The microbiologic profile associated with peri-implantitis in humans: a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2016;31(2):359–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Colombo APV, Tanner ACR. The role of bacterial biofilms in dental caries and periodontal and peri-implant diseases: a historical perspective. J Dent Res. 2019;98(4):373–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kumar PS. Systemic risk factors for the development of periimplant diseases. Implant Dent. 2019;28(2):115–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lafaurie GI, Sabogal MA, Castillo DM, Rincón MV, Gómez LA, Lesmes YA, Chambrone L. Microbiome and microbial biofilm profiles of peri-implantitis: a systematic review. J Periodontol. 2017;88(10):1066–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Preethanath RS, AlNahas NW, Bin Huraib SM, Al-Balbeesi HO, Almalik NK, Dalati MHN, Divakar DD. Microbiome of dental implants and its clinical aspect. Microb Pathog. 2017;106:20–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yu XL, Chan Y, Zhuang L, Lai HC, Lang NP, Keung Leung W, Watt RM. Intra-oral single-site comparisons of periodontal and peri-implant microbiota in health and disease. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2019;
  54. 54.
    Turnbaugh PJ, Ley RE, Hamady M, Fraser-Liggett CM, Knight R, Gordon JI. The human microbiome project. Nature. 2007;449(7164):804–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cho I, Blaser MJ. The human microbiome: at the interface of health and disease. Nat Rev Genet. 2012;13(4):260–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Socransky SS, Haffajee AD, Cugini MA, Smith C, Kent Jr. RL. Microbial complexes in subgingival plaque. J Clin Periodontol. 1998;25(2):134–44.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Akram Z, Al-Aali KA, Alrabiah M, Alonaizan FA, Abduljabbar T, AlAhmari F, Javed F, Vohra F. Current weight of evidence of viruses associated with peri-implantitis and peri-implant health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Med Virol. 2019;29(3):e2042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Binshabaib M, Al-Harthi SS, Salehpoor D, Michelogiannakis D, Javed F. Contribution of herpesviruses in the progression of periodontal and peri-implant diseases in systemically healthy individuals. Rev Med Virol. 2018;28(5):e1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Turri A, Rossetti PH, Canullo L, Grusovin MG, Dahlin C. Prevalence of peri-implantitis in medically compromised patients and smokers: a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2016;31(1):111–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bosshardt DD, Chappuis V, Buser D. Osseointegration of titanium, titanium alloy and zirconia dental implants: current knowledge and open questions. Periodontol 2000. 2017;73(1):22–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    de Avila ED, Vergani CE, Mollo Junior FA, Junior MJ, Shi W, Lux R. Effect of titanium and zirconia dental implant abutments on a cultivable polymicrobial saliva community. J Prosthet Dent. 2017;118(4):481–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Roehling S, Astasov-Frauenhoffer M, Hauser-Gerspach I, Braissant O, Woelfler H, Waltimo T, Kniha H, Gahlert M. In vitro biofilm formation on titanium and zirconia implant surfaces. J Periodontol. 2017;88(3):298–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Schou S, Holmstrup P, Worthington HV, Esposito M. Outcome of implant therapy in patients with previous tooth loss due to periodontitis. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2006;17(Suppl 2):104–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wen X, Liu R, Li G, Deng M, Liu L, Zeng XT, Nie X. History of periodontitis as a risk factor for long-term survival of dental implants: a meta-analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2014;29(6):1271–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ting M, Craig J, Balkin BE, Suzuki JB. Peri-implantitis: a comprehensive overview of systematic reviews. J Oral Implantol. 2018;44(3):225–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Stacchi C, Berton F, Perinetti G, Frassetto A, Lombardi T, Khoury A, Andolsek F, Di Lenarda R. Risk factors for peri-implantitis: effect of history of periodontal disease and smoking habits. A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Oral Maxillofac Res. 2016;7(3):e3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ramanauskaite A, Baseviciene N, Wang HL, Tözüm TF. Effect of history of periodontitis on implant success: meta-analysis and systematic review. Implant Dent. 2014;23(6):687–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Genovesi A, Barone A, Toti P, Covani U. The efficacy of 0.12% chlorhexidine versus 0.12% chlorhexidine plus hyaluronic acid mouthwash on healing of submerged single implant insertion areas: a short-term randomized controlled clinical trial. Int J Dental Hygiene. 2017;15(1):65–72.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lambert PM, Morris HF, Ochi S. The influence of 0.12% chlorh-exidine digluconate rinses on the incidence of infectious complica-tions and implant success. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997;52:25–30.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Worthington HV. Interventions for replacing missing teeth: antibiotics at dental implant placement to prevent complications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;31(7):CD004152.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kashani H, Dahlin C, Alse’n B. Influence of different prophylactic antibiotic regimens on implant survival rate: a retrospective clinical study. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2005;7(1):32–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Romandini M, Tullio I, Congedi F, Kalemaj Z, D’Ambrosio M, Laforí A, Quaranta C, Buti J, Perfetti G. Antibiotic prophylaxis at dental implant placement: which is the best protocol? A systematic review and network meta-analysis. J Clin Periodontol. 2019;46(3):382–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Veitz-Keenan A, Keenan JR. Antibiotic use at dental implant placement. Evid Based Dent. 2015;16(2):50–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Braun RS, Chambrone L, Khouly I. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in dental implant failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Dent Assoc. 2019;150(6):e61–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Chen Z, Chen D, Zhang S, Tang L, Li Q. Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing dental implant failure and postoperative infection: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Am J Dent. 2017;30(2):89–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Park J, Tennant M, Walsh LJ, Kruger E. Is there a consensus on antibiotic usage for dental implant placement in healthy patients? Aust Dent J Mar. 2018;63(1):25–33.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
  78. 78.
    Al-Kattan R, Al-Shibani N. Current trends in antibiotic prescription behavior among Saudi dentists performing implant surgery: a cross-sectional observational study. J Investig Clin Dent. 2019;10(2):e12383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Arteagoitia I, Rodríguez-Andrés C, Rodríguez-Sánchez F. Antibiotic prophylaxis habits in dental implant surgery among dentists in Spain. A cross-sectional survey. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2018;23(5):e608–18.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Camps-Font O, Viaplana-Gutiérrez M, Mir-Mari J, Figueiredo R, Gay-Escoda C, Valmaseda-Castellón E. Antibiotic prescription for the prevention and treatment of postoperative complications after routine dental implant placement. a cross-sectional study performed in Spain. J Clin Exp Dent. 2018;10(3):e264–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Datta R, Grewal Y, Batth JS, Singh A. Current trend of antimicrobial prescription for oral implant surgery among dentists in India. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2014;13(4):503–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Froum SJ, Weinberg MA. An evaluation of antibiotic use in periodontal and implant practices. Int J Periodont Restorative Dent. 2015;35(4):481–7.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Deeb GR, Soung GY, Best AM, Laskin DM. Antibiotic prescribing habits of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in conjunction with routine dental implant placement. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015;73(10):1926–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chaffee NR, Lowden K, Tiffee JC, Cooper LF. Periapical abscess formation and resolution adjacent to dental implants: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent. 2001;85(2):109–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tseng CC, Chen YH, Pang IC, Weber HP. Peri-implant pathology caused by periapical lesion of an adjacent natural tooth: a case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2005;20(4):632–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Tözüm TF, Sençimen M, Ortakoğlu K, Ozdemir A, Aydin OC, Keleş M. Diagnosis and treatment of a large periapical implant lesion associated with adjacent natural tooth: a case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;101(6):e132–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Penel G, Iost A, Libersa JC. Cleaning implantation burs. Observations using scanning electron microscopy. Bull Group Int Rech Sci Stomatol Odontol. 2001;43(1):11–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Langsteiner A, Loncaric I, Henkel-Odwody AM, Tichy A, Licka TF. Initial adhesion of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains to untreated and electropolished surgical steel drill bits. Res Vet Sci. 2017;114:474–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Baffone W, Sorgente G, Campana R, Patrone V, Sisti D, Falcioni T. Comparative effect of chlorhexidine and some mouthrinses on bacterial biofilm formation on titanium surface. Curr Microbiol. 2011;62(2):445–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tomás I, Cousido MC, García-Caballero L, Rubido S, Limeres J, Diz P. Substantivity of a single chlorhexidine mouthwash on salivary flora: influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. J Dent. 2010;38(7):541–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Veitz-Keenan A, Ferraiolo DM, Keenan JR. Impact of asepsis technique on implant success. A review. Eur J Oral Implantol. 2018;11:S113–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Suda KJ, Calip GS, Zhou J, Rowan S, Gross AE, Hershow RC, Perez RI, McGregor JC, Evans CT. Assessment of the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions for infection prophylaxis before dental procedures, 2011 to 2015. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193909.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Khouly I, Braun RS, Chambrone L. Antibiotic prophylaxis may not be indicated for prevention of dental implant infections in healthy patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Oral Investig. 2019;23(4):1525–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Khalil D, Hultin M, Andersson Fred L, Parkbring Olsson N, Lund B. Antibiotic prescription patterns among Swedish dentists working with dental implant surgery: adherence to recommendations. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2015;26(9):1064–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ireland RS, Palmer NO, Lindenmeyer A, Mills N. An investigation of antibiotic prophylaxis in implant practice in the UK. Br Dent J. 2012;213(8):E14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Goh EXJ, Lim LP. Implant maintenance for the prevention of biological complications: are you ready for the next challenge? J Investig Clin Dent. 2017;8(4):PMID:27987273.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pirc M, Dragan IF. The key points of maintenance therapy for dental implants: a literature review. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2017;38(4):e5–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Tan WC, Ong MM, Lang NP. Influence of maintenance care in periodontally susceptible and non-susceptible subjects following implant therapy. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2017;28(4):491–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Monje A, Wang HL, Nart J. Association of preventive maintenance therapy compliance and peri-implant diseases: a cross-sectional study. J Periodontol. 2017;88(10):1030–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Costa FO, Takenaka-Martinez S, Cota LO, Ferreira SD, Silva GL, Costa JE. Peri-implant disease in subjects with and without preventive maintenance: a 5-year follow-up. J Clin Periodontol. 2012;39(2):173–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Baj A, Beltramini GA, Bolzoni A, Cura F, Palmieri A, Scarano A, Ottria L, Giannì AB. Bacterial colonization of the implant-abutment interface of conical connection with an internal octagon: an in vitro study using real-time PCR. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2017;31(2 Suppl 1):163–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    da Silva-Neto JP, Nóbilo MA, Penatti MP, Simamoto PC Jr, das Neves FD. Influence of methodologic aspects on the results of implant-abutment interface microleakage tests: a critical review of in vitro studies. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2012;27(4):793–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sasada Y, Cochran DL. Implant-abutment connections: a review of biologic consequences and peri-implantitis implications. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2017;32(6):1296–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gil FJ, Herrero-Climent M, Lázaro P, Rios JV. Implant-abutment connections: influence of the design on the microgap and their fatigue and fracture behavior of dental implants. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2014;25(7):1825–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Tsuruta K, Ayukawa Y, Matsuzaki T, Kihara M, Koyano K. The influence of implant-abutment connection on the screw loosening and microleakage. Int J Implant Dent. 2018;4(1):11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ahmed A, Chambers MS, Goldschmidt MC, Habib A, Lei X, Jacob RF. Association between microbial flora and tissue abnormality around dental implants penetrating the skin in reconstructed oral cancer patients. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2012;27(3):684–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Clayman L. Implant reconstruction of the bone-grafted maxilla: review of the literature and presentation of 8 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64(4):674–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Nguyen TTH, Eo MY, Kuk TS, Myoung H, Kim SM. Rehabilitation of atrophic jaw using iliac onlay bone graft combined with dental implants. Int J Implant Dent. 2019;5(1):11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Fretwurst T, Nack C, Al-Ghrairi M, Raguse JD, Stricker A, Schmelzeisen R, Nelson K, Nahles S. Long-term retrospective evaluation of the peri-implant bone level in onlay grafted patients with iliac bone from the anterior superior iliac crest. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2015;43(6):956–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Nagy K, Borbély L, Kovács A, Fazekas A, Vajdovich I, Mari A. Implant-prosthetic rehabilitation after segmental mandibulectomy and bone grafting. J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 1999;9:185–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Pellegrino G, Tarsitano A, Ferri A, Corinaldesi G, Bianchi A, Marchetti C. Long-term results of osseointegrated implant-based dental rehabilitation in oncology patients reconstructed with a fibula free flap. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2018;20(5):852–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kramer FJ, Dempf R, Bremer B. Efficacy of dental implants placed into fibula-free flaps for orofacial reconstruction. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2005;16(1):80–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Peixoto CD, Almas K. The implant surface characteristics and peri-implantitis. An evidence-based update. Odontostomatol Trop. 2016;39(153):23–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Fourmousis I, Vlachos M. Genetic risk factors for the development of periimplantitis. Implant Dent. 2019;28(2):103–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Gherlone EF, Capparé P, Tecco S, Polizzi E, Pantaleo G, Gastaldi G, Grusovin MG. Implant prosthetic rehabilitation in controlled HIV-positive patients: a prospective longitudinal study with 1-year follow-up. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2016;18(4):725–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Guobis Z, Pacauskiene I, Astramskaite I. General diseases influence on peri-implantitis development: a systematic review. J Oral Maxillofac Res. 2016;7(3):e5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Schwarz F, Derks J, Monje A, Wang HL. Peri-implantitis. J Periodontol. 2018;21(89):S267–90.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Albrektsson T, Zarb G, Worthington P, Eriksson AR. The long-term efficacy of currently used dental implants: a review and proposed criteria of success. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1986;1(1):11–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Papaspyridakos P, Chen CJ, Singh M, Weber HP, Gallucci GO. Success criteria in implant dentistry: a systematic review. J Dent Res. 2012;91(3):242–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Jimbo R, Albrektsson T. Long-term clinical success of minimally and moderately rough oral implants: a review of 71 studies with 5 years or more of follow-up. Implant Dent. 2015;24(1):62–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Heitz-Mayfield LJ. Diagnosis and management of peri-implant diseases. Aust Dent J. 2008;53(Suppl 1):S43–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Monje A, Insua A, Monje F, Muñoz F, Salvi GE, Buser D, Chappuis V. Diagnostic accuracy of the implant stability quotient in monitoring progressive peri-implant bone loss: an experimental study in dogs. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2018;29(10):1016–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Yao CJ, Ma L, Mattheos N. Can resonance frequency analysis detect narrow marginal bone defects around dental implants? An ex vivo animal pilot study. Aust Dent J. 2017;62(4):433–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Pourhashemi SJ, Ghoncheh Z, Kiani MT, Emami R, Kharazifard MJ. Diagnostic accuracy of inverted and unprocessed digitized periapical radiographs for detection of peri-implant defects. J Dent (Tehran). 2015;12(8):571–6.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Pinheiro LR, Scarfe WC, de Oliveira Sales MA, Gaia BF, Cortes AR, Gusmão Paraiso Cavalcanti M. Effectiveness of periapical radiography versus cone beam computed tomography with different kilovoltage settings in the detection of chemically created peri-implant bone defects: an in vitro study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2017;32(4):741–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Benouaich V, Hitzel A, Armand S. Relevance of functional imaging in dental implantology. Clin Exp Dent. 2018;10(10):e1011–6.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Mellado-Valero A, Buitrago-Vera P, Solá-Ruiz MF, Ferrer-García JC. Decontamination of dental implant surface in peri-implantitis treatment: a literature review. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013;18(6):e869–76.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Heitz-Mayfield LJ, Lang NP. Antimicrobial treatment of peri-implant diseases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004;19:128–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Singh G, O’Neal RB, Brennan WA, Strong SL, Horner JA, Van Dyke TE. Surgical treatment of induced peri-implantitis in the micro pig: clinical and histological analysis. J Periodontol. 1993;64(10):984–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nart J, Pons R, Valles C, Esmatges A, Sanz-Martín I, Monje A. Non-surgical therapeutic outcomes of peri-implantitis: 12-month results. Clin Oral Investig. 2019;
  131. 131.
    Toma S, Brecx MC, Lasserre JF. Clinical evaluation of three surgical modalities in the treatment of peri-implantitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Clin Med. 2019;8(7):pii:E966. Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lang MS, Cerutis DR, Miyamoto T, Nunn ME. Cell attachment following instrumentation with titanium and plastic instruments, diode laser, and titanium brush on titanium, titanium-zirconium, and zirconia surfaces. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2016;31(4):799–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Tribst JPM, Dal Piva AMO, de Lima DR, Borges ALS, Bottino MA. Simulated damage of two implant debridement methods: nonsurgical approach with Teflon and stainless steel hand scalers. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2019;22(4):340–4.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Huang YS, Hung CY, Huang HH. Surface changes and bacterial adhesion on implant abutment materials after various clinical cleaning procedures. J Chin Med Assoc. 2019;
  135. 135.
    Schwarz F, Schmucker A, Becker J. Efficacy of alternative or adjunctive measures to conventional treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Implant Dent. 2015;1(1):22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Harrel SK, Wilson TG Jr, Pandya M, Diekwisch TGH. Titanium particles generated during ultrasonic scaling of implants. J Periodontol. 2019;90(3):241–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Yang SM, Park JB, Ko Y. Use of confocal microscopy for quantification of plastic remnants on rough titanium after instrumentation and evaluation of efficacy of removal. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2015;30(3):519–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ronay V, Merlini A, Attin T, Schmidlin PR, Sahrmann P. In vitro cleaning potential of three implant debridement methods. Simulation of the non-surgical approach. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2017;28(2):151–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wei MCT, Tran C, Meredith N, Walsh LJ. Effectiveness of implant surface debridement using particle beams at differing air pressures. Clin Exp Dent Res. 2017;3(4):148–53.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Keim D, Nickles K, Dannewitz B, Ratka C, Eickholz P, Petsos H. In vitro efficacy of three different implant surface decontamination methods in three different defect configurations. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2019;30(6):550–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Tastepe CS, Lin X, Werner A, Donnet M, Wismeijer D, Liu Y. Cleaning effect of osteoconductive powder abrasive treatment on explanted human implants and biofilm-coated titanium discs. Clin Exp Dent Res. 2018;4(1):25–34.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    John G, Becker J, Schwarz F. Effectivity of air-abrasive powder based on glycine and tricalcium phosphate in removal of initial biofilm on titanium and zirconium oxide surfaces in an ex vivo model. Clin Oral Investig. 2016;20(4):711–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Mensi M, Cochis A, Sordillo A, Uberti F, Rimondini L. Biofilm removal and bacterial re-colonization inhibition of a novel erythritol/chlorhexidine air-polishing powder on titanium disks. Materials (Basel). 2018;11(9):E1510.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Harrel SK, Abraham CM, Rivera-Hidalgo F. Tissue resistance to soft tissue emphysema during minimally invasive periodontal surgery. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2012;13(6):886–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Leonhardt A, Dahlén G, Renvert S. Five-year clinical, microbiological, and radiological outcome following treatment of peri-implantitis in man. J Periodontol. 2003;74(10):1415–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Wiedmer D, Petersen FC, Lönn-Stensrud J, Tiainen H. Antibacterial effect of hydrogen peroxide-titanium dioxide suspensions in the decontamination of rough titanium surfaces. Biofouling. 2017;33(6):451–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Alhag M, Renvert S, Polyzois I, Claffey N. Re-osseointegration on rough implant surfaces previously coated with bacterial biofilm: an experimental study in the dog. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2006;19(2):182–7.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Ntrouka V, Hoogenkamp M, Zaura E, van der Weijden F. The effect of chemotherapeutic agents on titanium-adherent biofilms. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2011;22(11):1227–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Hentenaar DFM, De Waal YCM, Strooker H, Meijer HJA, Van Winkelhoff AJ, Raghoebar GM. Implant decontamination with phosphoric acid during surgical peri-implantitis treatment: a RCT. Int J Implant Dent. 2017;3(1):33.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Carral C, Muñoz F, Permuy M, Liñares A, Dard M, Blanco J. Mechanical and chemical implant decontamination in surgical peri-implantitis treatment: preclinical “in vivo” study. J Clin Periodontol. 2016;43(8):694–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Sener BC. Biomedical optics and lasers. In: Kara S, editor. A roadmap of biomedical engineers and milestones. London: IntechOpen; 2012, Scholar
  152. 152.
    Meral G, Tasar F, Kocagöz S, Sener C. Factors affecting the antibacterial effects of Nd:YAG laser in vivo. Lasers Surg Med. 2003;32:197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Lin GH, Suárez López Del Amo F, Wang HL. Laser therapy for treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis: an American Academy of Periodontology best evidence review. J Periodontol. 2018;89(7):766–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Chambrone L, Wang HL, Romanos GE. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for the treatment of periodontitis and peri-implantitis: an American Academy of Periodontology best evidence review. J Periodontol. 2018;89(7):783–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Nejem Wakim R, Namour M, Nguyen HV, Peremans A, Zeinoun T, Vanheusden A, Rompen E, Nammour S. Decontamination of dental implant surfaces by the Er:YAG laser beam: a comparative in vitro study of various protocols. Dent J (Basel). 2018;6(4):pii:E66.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Alagl AS, Madi M, Bedi S, Al Onaizan F, Al-Aql ZS. The effect of Er,Cr:YSGG and diode laser applications on dental implant surfaces contaminated with Acinetobacter Baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials (Basel). 2019;12(13):pii:E2073.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Mirhashemi A, Sharifi N, Moharrami M, Chiniforush N. Evaluation of different types of lasers in surface conditioning of porcelains: a review article. J Lasers Med Sci. 2017;8(3):101–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Kushima SS, Nagasawa M, Shibli JA, Brugnera A Jr, Rodrigues JA, Cassoni A. Evaluation of temperature and roughness alteration of diode laser irradiation of zirconia and titanium for peri-implantitis treatment. Photomed Laser Surg. 2016;34(5):194–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Stübinger S, Homann F, Etter C, Miskiewicz M, Wieland M, Sader R. Effect of Er:YAG, CO(2) and diode laser irradiation on surface properties of zirconia endosseous dental implants. Lasers Surg Med. 2008;40(3):223–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Jin SH, Lee EM, Park JB, Kim KK, Ko Y. Decontamination methods to restore the biocompatibility of contaminated titanium surfaces. J Periodontal Implant Sci. 2019;49(3):193–204.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Albouy JP, Abrahamsson I, Persson LG, Berglundh T. Implant surface characteristics influence the outcome of treatment of peri-implantitis: an experimental study in dogs. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38(1):58–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Ramanauskaite A, Daugela P, Faria de Almeida R, Saulacic N. Surgical non-regenerative treatments for peri-implantitis: a systematic review. J Oral Maxillofac Res. 2016;7(3):e14.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Stavropoulos A, Bertl K, Eren S, Gotfredsen K. Mechanical and biological complications after implantoplasty—a systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2019;
  164. 164.
    Schou S, Holmstrup P, Skovgaard LT, Stoltze K, Hjørting-Hansen E, Gundersen HJ. Autogenous bone graft and ePTFE membrane in the treatment of peri-implantitis. II Stereologic and histologic observations in cynomolgus monkeys. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2003;14(4):404–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Simonpieri A, Del Corso M, Vervelle A, Jimbo R, Inchingolo F, Sammartino G, Dohan Ehrenfest DM. Current knowledge and perspectives for the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in oral and maxillofacial surgery part 2: bone graft, implant and reconstructive surgery. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2012;13(7):1231–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Sanz M, Dahlin C, Apatzidou D, Artzi Z, Bozic D, Calciolari E, De Bruyn H, Dommisch H, Donos N, Eickholz P, Ellingsen JE, Haugen HJ, Herrera D, Lambert F, Layrolle P, Montero E, Mustafa K, Omar O, Schliephake H. Biomaterials and regenerative technologies used in bone regeneration in the craniomaxillofacial region: consensus report of group 2 of the 15th European Workshop on Periodontology on Bone Regeneration. J Clin Periodontol. 2019;46(Suppl 21):82–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Jepsen S, Schwarz F, Cordaro L, Derks J, Hämmerle CHF, Heitz-Mayfield LJ, Hernández-Alfaro F, Meijer HJA, Naenni N, Ortiz-Vigón A, Pjetursson B, Raghoebar GM, Renvert S, Rocchietta I, Roccuzzo M, Sanz-Sánchez I, Simion M, Tomasi C, Trombelli L, Urban I. Regeneration of alveolar ridge defects. Consensus report of group 4 of the 15th European Workshop on Periodontology on Bone Regeneration. J Clin Periodontol. 2019;46(Suppl 21):277–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Resnic RR. Dental Implant Intraoperative Complications. In: Misch CE, Resnik RR, editors. Misch’s avoiding complications in oral implantology. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2018. p. 212.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Stajčić Z, Stojčev Stajčić LJ, Kalanović M, Đinić A, Divekar N, Rodić M. Removal of dental implants: review of five different techniques. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;45(5):641–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Schlund M, Raoul G, Ferri J, Nicot R. Mandibular osteomyelitis following implant placement. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;12:2560.e1–7.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Naval-Gías L, Rodriguez-Campo F, Naval-Parra B, Sastre-Pérez J. Pathological mandibular fracture: a severe complication of periimplantitis. J Clin Exp Dent. 2015;7(2):e328–32.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Hämmerle CHF, Tarnow D. The etiology of hard- and soft-tissue deficiencies at dental implants: a narrative review. J Periodontol. 2018;89(Suppl 1):S291–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Giovannacci I, Meleti M, Manfredi M, Mortellaro C, Greco Lucchina A, Bonanini M, Vescovi P. Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw around dental implants: implant surgery-triggered or implant presence-triggered osteonecrosis? J Craniofac Surg. 2016;27(3):697–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Gefrerer L, Popowski W, Perek JN, Wojtowicz A. Recurrent pyogenic granuloma around dental implants: a rare case report. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2016;36(4):573–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Jané-Salas E, Albuquerque R, Font-Muñoz A, González-Navarro B, Estrugo Devesa A, López-López J. Pyogenic granuloma/peripheral giant-cell granuloma associated with implants. Int J Dent. 2015;2015:839032.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Anitua E, Pinas L. Pyogenic granuloma in relation to dental implants: clinical and histopathological findings. J Clin Exp Dent. 2015;7(4):e447–50.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Kaya A, Ugurlu F, Basel B, Sener CB. Oral pyogenic granuloma associated with a dental implant treated with an Er:YAG laser: a case report. J Oral Implantol. 2015;41(6):720–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Kang YH, Byun JH, Choi MJ, Lee JS, Jang JH, Kim YI, Park BW. Co-development of pyogenic granuloma and capillary hemangioma on the alveolar ridge associated with a dental implant: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2014;8:192.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Nariai Y, Kanno T, Sekine J. Histopathological features of secondary squamous cell carcinoma around a dental implant in the mandible after chemoradiotherapy: a case report with a clinicopathological review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;4(5):982–90.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Malthiéry E, De Boutray M, Koren C, Albouy JP, Torres JH, Fauroux MA. Squamous cell carcinoma around a dental implant: a case report and literature review. Oral Oncol. 2019;91:134–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Sikora CL, Alfaro MF, Yuan JC, Barao VA, Sukotjo C, Mathew MT. Wear and corrosion interactions at the titanium/zirconia interface: dental implant application. J Prosthodont. 2018;27(9):842–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Apaza-Bedoya K, Tarce M, Benfatti CAM, Henriques B, Mathew MT, Teughels W, Souza JCM. Synergistic interactions between corrosion and wear at titanium-based dental implant connections: ascoping review. J Periodontal Res. 2017;52(6):946–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Schwarz F, Sahm N, Mihatovic I, Golubovic V, Becker J. Surgical ther-apy of advanced ligature- induced peri- implantitis defects: cone- beam computed tomographic and histological analysis. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38:949.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bedrettin Cem Sener
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of Toronto Instructor, & Private PracticeTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations