Advertisement

Aesthetic Dental Implant Complications

  • Hossein Behnia
  • Navid Sharifzadeh
  • Parsa Behnia
Chapter
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

Since the early days of the discovery of dental implants, there has been a substantial paradigm shift from placing implants in edentulous ridges to rehabilitating the most complex cases in the aesthetic zone. The more implants are placed in the aesthetic zone, the more complications associated with this treatment protocol are developed. So, the need for documentation of aesthetic complications and definition of risk factors arises. Having enough information about advantages of the treatment modality, clinicians have to know its disadvantages correspondingly.

Keywords

Implant Aesthetic Complication Anterior Soft tissue Hard tissue Aesthetic zone 

References

  1. 1.
    Branemark PI, Adell R, Breine U, Hansson BO, Lindstrom J, Ohlsson A. Intra-osseous anchorage of dental prostheses. I. Experimental studies. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg. 1969;3:81–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schroeder A, Pohler O, Sutter F. Gewebsreaktion auf einTitan-Hohlzylinderimplantat mit Titan-Spritzschichtoberfl€ache. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed. 1976;86:713–27.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adell R, Lekholm U, Rockler B, Branemark PI. A 15-year study of osseointegrated implants in the treatment of the edentulous jaw. Int J Oral Surg. 1981;10:387–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Branemark PI, Hansson BO, Adell R, Breine U, Lindstrom J, Hallen O, Ohman A. Osseointegrated implants in the treatment of the edentulous jaw. Experience from a 10-year period. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Suppl. 1977;16:1–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buser D, Chappuis V, Belser UC, Chen S. Implant placement post-extraction in esthetic single-tooth sites: when immediate, when early, when late? Periodontol 2000. 2017;73:84–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buser D, Weber HP, Bragger U. The treatment of partially edentulous patients with ITI hollow-screw implants: presurgical evaluation and surgical procedures. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1990;5:165–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buser D, Weber HP, Lang NP. Tissue integration of non-submerged implants. 1-year results of a prospective study with 100 ITI hollow-cylinder and hollow-screw implants. Clin Oral Implants Res. 1990;1:33–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Van Steenberghe D, Lekholm U, Bolender C, Folmer T, Henry P, Herrmann I, Higuchi K, Laney W, Linden U, Astrand P. Applicability of osseointegrated oral implants in the rehabilitation of partial edentulism: a prospective multicenter study on 558 fixtures. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1990;5:272–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bornstein MM, Halbritter S, Harnisch H, Weber HP, Buser D. A retrospective analysis of patients referred for implant placement to a specialty clinic regarding indications, surgical procedures and early failures. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2008;23:1109–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brugger OE, Bornstein MM, Kuchler U, Janner SF, Chappuis V, Buser D. Implant therapy in a surgical specialty clinic: an analysis of patients, indications, surgical procedures, risk factors, and early failures. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2015;30:151–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Araujo MG, Lindhe J. Dimensional ridge alterations following tooth extraction. An experimental study in the dog. J Clin Periodontol. 2005;32:212–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chappuis V, Engel O, Reyes M, Shahim K, Nolte LP, Buser D. Ridge alterations post-extraction in the esthetic zone: a 3D analysis with CBCT. J Dent Res. 2013;92:195S–201S.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen ST, Buser D. Clinical and esthetic outcomes of implants placed in post-extraction sites. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2009;24(Suppl):186–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Albrektsson T, Zarb G, Worthington P, Eriksson AR. The long-term efficacy of currently used dental implants: a review and proposed criteria of success. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1986;1:11–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jung RE, Pjetursson BE, Glauser R, Zembic A, Zwahlen M, Lang NP. A systematic review of the 5-year survival and complication rates of implant-supported single crowns. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2008;19:119–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jung RE, Zembic A, Pjetursson BE, Zwahlen M, Thoma DS. Systematic review of the survival rate and the incidence of biological, technical, and aesthetic complications of single crowns on implants reported in longitudinal studies with a mean follow-up of 5. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(Suppl):2–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pjetursson BE, Asgeirsson AG, Zwahlen M, Sailer I. Improvements in implant dentistry over the last decade: comparison of survival and complication rates in older and newer publications. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2014;29(Suppl):308–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pjetursson BE, Thoma D, Jung R, Zwahlen M, Zembic A. A systematic review of the survival and complication rates of implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) after a mean observation period of at least 5 years. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23(Suppl):22–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pinho T, Neves M, Alves C. Multidisciplinary management including periodontics, orthodontics, implants, and prosthetics for an adult. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2012;142:235–45.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cosyn J, Eghbali A, De Bruyn H, Dierens M, De Rouck T. Single implant treatment in healing versus healed sites of the anterior maxilla: an aesthetic evaluation. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2012;14:517–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Furhauser R, Florescu D, Benesch T, Haas R, Mailath G, Watzek G. Evaluation of soft tissue around single-tooth implant crowns: the pink esthetic score. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2005;16:639–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Belser UC, Grutter L, Vailati F, Bornstein MM, Weber HP, Buser D. Outcome evaluation of early placed maxillary anterior single-tooth implants using objective esthetic criteria. A cross-sectional, retrospective study in 45 patients with a 2- to 4-year follow-up using pink and white esthetic scores (PES/WES). J Periodontol. 2009;80:140–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jivraj S, Chee W. Treatment planning of implants in the aesthetic zone. Br Dent J. 2006;201:77–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Buser D, Martin W, Belser UC. Optimizing esthetics for implant restorations in the anterior maxilla: anatomic and surgical considerations. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004;19(Suppl):43–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Spray JR, Black CG, Morris HF, Ochi S. The influence of bone thickness on facial marginal bone response: stage 1 placement through stage 2 uncovering. Ann Periodontol. 2000;5:119–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barone A, Alfonsi F, Derchi G, Tonelli P, Toti P, Marchionni S, Covani U. The effect of insertion torque on the clinical outcome of single implants: a randomized clinical trial. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2016;18:588–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kan JY, Rungcharassaeng K, Sclar A, Lozada JL. Effects of the facial osseous defect morphology on gingival dynamics after immediate tooth replacement and guided bone regeneration: one-year results. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:13–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nisapakultorn K, Suphanantachat S, Silkosessak O, Rattanamongkolgul S. Factors affecting soft tissue level around anterior maxillary single-tooth implants. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2010;21:662–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chen ST, Darby IB, Reynolds EC, Clement JG. Immediate implant placement post-extraction without flap elevation. J Periodontol. 2009;80:163–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cordaro L, Torsello F, Roccuzzo M. Clinical outcome of submerged vs. non-submerged implants placed in fresh extraction sockets. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009;20:1307–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Evans CD, Chen ST. Esthetic outcomes of immediate implant placements. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2008;19:73–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kan JY, Rungcharassaeng K, Lozada JL, Zimmerman G. Facial gingival tissue stability following immediate placement and provisionalization of maxillary anterior single implants: a 2- to 8-year follow-up. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26:179–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Waerhaug J. Subgingival plaque and loss of attachment in periodontosis as observed in autopsy material. J Periodontol. 1976;47:636–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Roccuzzo M, Grasso G, Dalmasso P. Keratinized mucosa around implants in partially edentulous posterior mandible: 10-year results of a prospective comparative study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2016;27:491–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schrott AR, Jimenez M, Hwang JW, Fiorellini J, Weber HP. Five-year evaluation of the influence of keratinized mucosa on peri-implant soft-tissue health and stability around implants supporting full-arch mandibular fixed prostheses. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009;20:1170–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zigdon H, Machtei EE. The dimensions of keratinized mucosa around implants affect clinical and immunological parameters. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2008;19:387–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lin GH, Chan HL, Wang HL. The significance of keratinized mucosa on implant health: a systematic review. J Periodontol. 2013;84:1755–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bengazi F, Wennstrom JL, Lekholm U. Recession of the soft tissue margin at oral implants. A 2-year longitudinal prospective study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 1996;7:303–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mazzotti C, Stefanini M, Felice P, Bentivogli V, Mounssif I, Zucchelli G. Soft-tissue dehiscence coverage at peri-implant sites. Periodontol 2000. 2018;77:256–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zucchelli G, Tavelli L, Stefanini M, Barootchi S, Mazzotti C, Gori G, Wang HL. Classification of facial peri-implant soft tissue dehiscence/deficiencies at single implant sites in the esthetic zone. J Periodontol. 2019;90(10):1116–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cardaropoli G, Lekholm U, Wennstrom JL. Tissue alterations at implant-supported single-tooth replacements: a one-year prospective clinical study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2006;17:165–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cardaropoli G, Wennstrom JL, Lekholm U. Peri-implant bone alterations in relation to inter-unit distances. A 3-year retrospective study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2003;14:430–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cosyn J, Sabzevar MM, De Bruyn H. Predictors of interproximal and midfacial recession following single implant treatment in the anterior maxilla: a multivariate analysis. J Clin Periodontol. 2012;39:895–903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zuiderveld EG, Den Hartog L, Vissink A, Raghoebar GM, Meijer HJ. Significance of buccopalatal implant position, biotype, platform switching, and pre-implant bone augmentation on the level of the midbuccal mucosa. Int J Prosthodont. 2014;27:477–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Magne P, Belser U. Natural oral esthetics. In: Magne P, Belser U, editors. Bonded porcelain restorations in the anterior dentition. A biomimetic approach. Chicago: Quintessence; 2002. p. 57–99.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tjan AH, Miller GD, The JG. Some aesthetic factors in a smile. J Prosthet Dent. 1984;51:24–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kois JC. Aesthetic extraction site development: the biological variables. Contemp Aest Rest Prac. 1998;2:10–8.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tarnow DP, Cho SC, Wallace SS. The effect of inter-implant distance on the height of inter-implant bone crest. J Periodontol. 2000;71:546–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tarnow D, Elian N, Fletcher P, Froum S, Magner A, Cho SC, Salama M, Salama H, Garber DA. Vertical distance from the crest of bone to the height of the interproximal papilla between adjacent implants. J Periodontol. 2003;74:1785–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ross SB, Pette GA, Parker WB, Hardigan P. Gingival margin changes in maxillary anterior sites after single immediate implant placement and provisionalization: a five-year retrospective study of 47 patients. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2014;29:127–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Small PN, Tarnow DP, Cho SC. Gingival recession around wide-diameter versus standard-diameter implants: a 3- to 5-year longitudinal prospective study. Pract Proced Aesthet Dent. 2001;13:143–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Naert I, Quirynen M, van Steenberghe D, Darius P. A study of 589 consecutive implants supporting complete fixed prostheses. Part II: prosthetic aspects. J Prosthet Dent. 1992;68:949–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kan JY, Rungcharassaeng K, Umezu K, Kois JC. Dimensions of peri-implant mucosa: an evaluation of maxillary anterior single implants in humans. J Periodontol. 2003;4:557–62.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cosyn J, Hooghe N, De Bruyn H. A systematic review on the frequency of advanced recession following single immediate implant treatment. J Clin Periodontol. 2012;39:582–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fu JH, Su CY, Wang HL. Esthetic soft tissue management for teeth and implants. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2012;12:129–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Benic GI, Mokti M, Chen CJ, Weber HP, Hammerle CH, Gallucci GO. Dimensions of buccal bone and mucosa at immediately placed implants after 7 years: a clinical and cone beam computed tomography study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23:560–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kuchler U, Chappuis V, Gruber R, Lang NP, Salvi GE. Immediate implant placement with simultaneous guided bone regeneration in the esthetic zone: 10-year clinical and radiographic outcomes. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2016;27:253–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Miyamoto Y, Obama T. Dental cone beam computed tomography analyses of postoperative labial bone thickness in maxillary anterior implants: comparing immediate and delayed implant placement. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2011;31:215–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Morton D, Chen ST, Martin WC, Levine RA, Buser D. Consensus statements and recommended clinical procedures regarding optimizing esthetic outcomes in implant dentistry. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2014;29(Suppl):216–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Braut V, Bornstein MM, Belser U, Buser D. Thickness of the anterior maxillary facial bone wall – a retrospective radiographic study using cone beam computed tomography. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2011;31:125–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Januario AL, Duarte WR, Barriviera M, Mesti JC, Araujo MG, Lindhe J. Dimension of the facial bone wall in the anterior maxilla: a cone-beam computed tomography study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2011;22:1168–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Vera C, De Kok IJ, Reinhold D, Limpiphipatanakorn P, Yap AK, Tyndall D, Cooper LF. Evaluation of buccal alveolar bone dimension of maxillary anterior and premolar teeth: a cone beam computed tomography investigation. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2012;27:1514–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Morad G, Behnia H, Motamedian SR, Shahab S, Gholamin P, Khosraviani K, Nowzari H, Khojasteh A. Thickness of labial alveolar bone overlying healthy maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth. J Craniofac Surg. 2014;25:1985–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chappuis V, Engel O, Shahim K, Reyes M, Katsaros C, Buser D. Soft tissue alterations in esthetic postextraction sites: a 3-dimensional analysis. J Dent Res. 2015;94:187S–93S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Canullo L, Iurlaro G, Iannello G. Double-blind randomized controlled trial study on post-extraction immediately restored implants using the switching platform concept: soft tissue response. Preliminary report. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009;20:414–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pieri F, Aldini NN, Marchetti C, Corinaldesi G. Influence of implant-abutment interface design on bone and soft tissue levels around immediately placed and restored single-tooth implants: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26:169–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    De Rouck T, Collys K, Wyn I, Cosyn J. Instant provisionalization of immediate single-tooth implants is essential to optimize esthetic treatment outcome. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009;20:566–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Den Hartog L, Raghoebar GM, Stellingsma K, Vissink A, Meijer HJ. Immediate non-occlusal loading of single implants in the aesthetic zone: a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38:186–94.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hall JA, Payne AG, Purton DG, Torr B, Duncan WJ, De Silva RK. Immediately restored, single-tapered implants in the anterior maxilla: prosthodontic and aesthetic outcomes after one year. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2007;9:34–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Raes F, Cosyn J, Crommelinck E, Coessens P, De Bruyn H. Immediate and conventional single implant treatment in the anterior maxilla: 1-year results of a case series on hard and soft tissue response and aesthetics. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38:385–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Block MS, Mercante DE, Lirette D, Mohamed W, Ryser M, Castellon P. Prospective evaluation of immediate and delayed provisional single tooth restorations. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:89–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zadeh HH. Minimally invasive treatment of maxillary anterior gingival recession defects by vestibular incision subperiosteal tunnel access and platelet-derived growth factor BB. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2011;31:653–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    de Sanctis M, Zucchelli G. Coronally advanced flap: a modified surgical approach for isolated recession-type defects: three-year results. J Clin Periodontol. 2007;34:262–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Behnia H, Nazerani S, Motamedi MH, Dashti H. Comprehensive reconstruction of the maxilla after a failed premaxillary osteotomy: a case report with long-term follow-up. Ann Plast Surg. 2009;62:59–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nazerani S, Behnia H, Motamedi MH. Experience with the prefabricated free fibula flap for reconstruction of maxillary and mandibular defects. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:260–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Behnia H, Tehranchi A, Morad G. Distraction osteogenesis. In: Motamedi MHK, editor. Distraction osteogenesis, a textbook of advanced oral and maxillofacial surgery. London: IntechOpen; 2013.  https://doi.org/10.5772/54647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hossein Behnia
    • 1
  • Navid Sharifzadeh
    • 2
  • Parsa Behnia
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Research Institute, Dento-facial Deformity Research Center, School of DentistryShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Periodontology, School of DentistryTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, School of DentistryShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations