Global Requirements

  • Ulrich C. Schreiber
  • Christian Mayer


Basic preconditions are required for the emergence of life, including rock planets in a solar system, which are in the habitable zone at the correct distance to the sun. Furthermore, the solar system needs to be located at the edge of a galaxy. Organochemical compounds on the earth’s surface need a magnetic field to protect against the solar wind to survive. Over and above this, a rotation of the planet and an accompanying moon that stabilizes this rotation to provide a harmonious heat balance are favorable. The moon was formed a few million years after the earth was formed by colliding with a minor planet. The subsequent cooling of the earth led to the formation of a magnetic field and a first atmosphere. Water was created during the late phase of continuous bombardment by meteorites from the outer area of the planetary system.


  1. 1.
    Connelly JN, Bizzarro M, Krot AN, Nordlund A, Wielandt D, Ivanova MA (2012) The absolute chronology and thermal processing of solids in the solar protoplanetary disk. Science 338:651–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Canup RM (2012) Forming a Moon with an Earth-like composition via a giant impact. Science 338(6110):1052–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ćuk M, Hamilton D, Lock SJ, Stewart ST (2016) Tidal evolution of the Moon from a high-obliquity, high-angular-momentum Earth. Nature 539:402–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lock SJ, Stewart ST, Petaev MI, Leinhardt ZM, Mace MT, Jacobsen SB, Ćuk M (2018) The origin of the Moon within a terrestrial synestia. J Geophys Res 123(4):910–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morbidelli A, Lunine JI, O’Brien DP, Raymond SN, Walsh KJ (2012) Building terrestrial planets. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 40:251–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Labrosse S, Hernlund JW, Coltice N (2007) A crystallizing dense magma ocean at the base of the Earth’s mantle. Nature 450:866–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tarduno JA, Cottrell RD, Davis WJ, Nimmo F, Bono RK (2015) A Hadean to Paleoarchean geodynamo recorded by single zircon crystals. Science 349(6247):521–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tarduno JA, Cottrell RD, Watkeys MK, Hofmann A, Doubrovine PV, Mamajek EE, Liu D, Sibeck DG, Neukirch LP, Usui Y (2010) Geodynamo, solar wind, and magnetopause 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago. Science 327:1238–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jakosky BM, Lin RP, Grebowsky JM et al (2015) The Mars atmosphere and volatile evolution (MAVEN) mission. Space Sci Rev 195(1–4):3–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lammer H, Zerkle AL, Gebauer S (2018) Origin and evolution of the atmospheres of early Venus, Earth and Mars. Astron Astrophys Rev 26:2. Scholar
  11. 11.
    O’Brien DP, Walsh KJ, Morbidelli A, Raymond SN, Mandell AM (2014) Water delivery and giant impacts in the “Grand Tack” scenario. Icarus 239:74–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
    Hards VL (2005) Volcanic contributions to the global carbon cycle. Br Geol Surv Occ Pub 10:1–20Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meschede M, Warr LN (2019) The geology of Germany. Regional geology reviews. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rosas JC, Korenaga J (2018) Rapid crustal growth and efficient crustal recycling in the early Earth: implications for Hadean and Archean geodynamics. Earth Planet Sci Lett 494:42–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rozel AB, Golabek GJ, Jain C, Tackley PJ, Gerya T (2017) Continental crust formation on early Earth controlled by intrusive magmatism. Nature 545:332–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dhuime B, Hawkesworth CJ, Cawood PA, Storey CD (2012) A change in the geodynamics of continental growth 3 billion years ago. Science 335:1334–1336CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulrich C. Schreiber
    • 1
  • Christian Mayer
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty for BiologyUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany
  2. 2.Faculty for ChemistryUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany

Personalised recommendations