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Breaking the Barriers Between Specialties: Toward a Universal Understanding of Anatomy and Function

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The solution to compartmentalization between the specialties described in Chap. 1 is the development of a concept of universality, where all specialists are equally aware of the knowledge of the others. Using this idealized concept, specialists would apply diagnosis and treatment not just according to the specifics of their specific procedural training but by seeing the bigger picture of the root cause of the physical causes of disease. While difficult to attain in the real-world, individual clinicians can help achieve this goal with as much exposure to others outside of their field as possible, not limiting their search to medicine and surgery alone. In this chapter, we take a critical eye to the established fields that treat the external facial skeleton, and the internal facial skeleton (airway and sinuses), and consider big-picture alternatives to conventional treatment.


  • Brow ptosis
  • Botulinum toxin
  • Jowls
  • Rhytidectomy
  • Facial fillers
  • Mandible fractures
  • Vertical fixation
  • Negative pressure
  • Eustachian tube dysfunction
  • Sinusitis
  • Endoscopic sinus surgery
  • Medical ethics

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-44674-1_10
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Stupak, H.D. (2020). Breaking the Barriers Between Specialties: Toward a Universal Understanding of Anatomy and Function. In: Rethinking Rhinoplasty and Facial Surgery. Springer, Cham.

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