Ribosome: Cells Protein Synthetic Machinery
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Ribosome is the translational apparatus in cells, serving as the protein synthetic machinery. Specified by mRNA, ribosomes link amino acids to form polypeptides. Ribosomes are composed of two subunits: a large and a small subunit. The small subunit reads the mRNA and the large subunit links amino acids to form polypeptides. Each subunit is composed of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal protein molecules; hence, it is a ribonucleoprotein. In protein synthesis, the small ribosomal subunit bound to an aminoacyl-tRNA binds to the start codon on the mRNA and recruits the large ribosomal subunit. At the inter-subunit region, ribosomes have three transfer RNA or tRNA binding sites: the A or aminoacyl site, the P or peptidyl site, and the E for the exit site. At the 30S small ribosome subunit, the mRNA binds to a track, moving in a stepwise manner, one codon at a time, resulting in peptide elongation and termination following completion of protein synthesis.
KeywordsTranslational apparatus Ribosomal RNA Ribosomal proteins
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