Ribosome: Cells Protein Synthetic Machinery



Ribosome is the translational apparatus in cells, serving as the protein synthetic machinery. Specified by mRNA, ribosomes link amino acids to form polypeptides. Ribosomes are composed of two subunits: a large and a small subunit. The small subunit reads the mRNA and the large subunit links amino acids to form polypeptides. Each subunit is composed of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal protein molecules; hence, it is a ribonucleoprotein. In protein synthesis, the small ribosomal subunit bound to an aminoacyl-tRNA binds to the start codon on the mRNA and recruits the large ribosomal subunit. At the inter-subunit region, ribosomes have three transfer RNA or tRNA binding sites: the A or aminoacyl site, the P or peptidyl site, and the E for the exit site. At the 30S small ribosome subunit, the mRNA binds to a track, moving in a stepwise manner, one codon at a time, resulting in peptide elongation and termination following completion of protein synthesis.


Translational apparatus Ribosomal RNA Ribosomal proteins 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyWayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA

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