ATP Synthase: Energy Generating Machinery in Cells



ATP synthase is an enzyme that drives the formation of ATP from ADP and Pi. It is a molecular rotary motor composed of F1 and Fo subunits and couples ATP synthesis during cellular respiration to an electrochemical gradient created by differences in proton concentration across mitochondrial membranes. In the mitochondria, proton is pumped across the inner mitochondrial membrane as electrons traveled through the electron transport chain. This results in a proton gradient, lowering the pH in the intermembrane space and elevated pH in the mitochondrial matrix. The proton gradient and membrane potential are the proton motive force that drives ATP synthesis.


Mitochondria ATP synthesis Rotary motor Electrochemical gradient Proton motive force Electron transport chain 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyWayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA

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