Advertisement

History, Urban Planning and Controversies

Chapter
  • 107 Downloads
Part of the Postdisciplinary Studies in Discourse book series (PSDS)

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of the major aspects linked to cycling advocacy or cycling policies, first from a historical perspective then focusing on contemporary cycling-related issues and findings. The role that non-linguists attribute to language and metaphors is highlighted, as in the metaphor of Darwinian evolution to frame the technological changes of velomobiles through history or the creation of ‘jaywalkers’. Some history of urban planning is presented, focusing on Buchanan’s work. The chapter then reports studies on ‘bikelash’, highlighting on discursive strategies to prevent it. At the end of the chapter some controversial issues that often arise when discussing cycling are briefly explained, these are mandatory helmet laws, road tax, safety in numbers and the exposure to pollution.

Keywords

Velomobile Jaywalking Road tax Bikelash Safety in numbers 

References

  1. Aldred, R. (2013). Incompetent or Too Competent? Negotiating Everyday Cycling Identities in a Motor Dominated Society. Mobilities, 8(2), 252–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker, P. C. (2019, October 3). Collision Course: Why Are Cars Killing More and More Pedestrians? The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2019/oct/03/collision-course-pedestrian-deaths-rising-driverless-cars. Accessed 23 November 2019.
  3. Buchanan, C. (2015 [1963]). Traffic in Towns—A Study of the Long Term Problem of Traffic in Urban Areas. Introduction by Simon Gunn. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Cox, P., & Van De Walle, F. (2007). Bicycles Don’t Evolve: Velomobiles and the Modelling of Transport Technologies. In D. Horton, P. Rosen, & P. Cox (Eds.), Cycling and Society (pp. 113–132). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. De Jong, P. (2012). The Health Impact of Mandatory Bicycle Helmet Laws. Risk Analysis, 32(5), 782–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. DfT. (2012). THINK! Cyclist. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/think-cyclist. Accessed 10 June 2019.
  7. DfT. (2013). Reported Road Casualties Great Britain 2013. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/359311/rrcgb-2013.pdf. Accessed 20 May 2019.
  8. ECF. (2014). ECF Helmet Factsheet. https://ecf.com/files/wp-content/uploads/Helmet-factsheet-_17042015_Final.pdf. Accessed 10 June 2019.
  9. ECF. (2016). Cycling Delivers on the Global Goals. https://ecf.com/groups/cycling-delivers-global-goals. Accessed 20 May 2019.
  10. Furness, Z. (2010). One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Gössling, S., Choi, A., Dekker, K., & Metzler, D. (2019, April). The Social Cost of Automobility, Cycling and Walking in the European Union. Ecological Economics, 158, 65–74.Google Scholar
  12. Gunn, S. (2011). The Buchanan Report, Environment and the Problem of Traffic in 1960s Britain. Twentieth Century British History, 22(4), 521–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Harrabin, R. (2013). Is There Any Such Thing as ‘Road Tax’? BBC News Website. https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-23694438. Accessed 10 June 2019.
  14. Horton, D. (2007). Fear of Cycling. In D. Horton, P. Rosen, & P. Cox (Eds.), Cycling and Society (pp. 133–152). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Horton, D. (2009). Social Movements and the Bicycle. https://thinkingaboutcycling.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/social-movements-and-the-bicycle.pdf. Accessed 4 June 2019.
  16. Horton, D., Rosen, P., & Cox, P. (2007). Cycling and Society. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Jacobsen, P. L. (2003). Safety in Numbers: More Walkers and Bicyclists, Safer Walking and Bicycling. Injury Prevention, 9, 205–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johan de Hartog, J., Boogaard, H., Nijland, H., & Hoek, G. (2010). Do the Health Benefits of Cycling Outweigh the Risks? Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(8), 1109–1116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnson, M., Newstead, S., Charlton, J., & Oxley, J. (2011). Riding Through Red Lights: The Rate, Characteristics and Risk Factors of Non-compliant Urban Commuter Cyclists. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(1), 323–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kanagawa Prefectural Police Department. (2019). Application Procedure for a Vehicle Parking Place (Garage) Certificate. https://www.police.pref.kanagawa.jp/eng/e_mes/engf4001.htm. Accessed 20 June 2019.
  21. Kingham, S., Longley, I., Salmond, J., Pattinson, W., & Shrestha, K. (2013). Variations in Exposure to Traffic Pollution While Travelling by Different Modes in a Low Density, Less Congested City. Environmental Pollution, 181, 211–218.Google Scholar
  22. Lakoff, G. (2010). Why It Matters How We Frame the Environment. Environmental Communication, 4(1), 70–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lash, S., & Urry, J. (1994). Economies of Signs and Space. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. Norton, P. D. (2007). Street Rivals: Jaywalking and the Invention of the Motor Age Street. Technology and Culture, 48(2), 331–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oddy, N. (2007). The Flaneur on Wheels? In D. Horton, P. Rosen, & P. Cox (Eds.), Cycling and Society (pp. 97–112). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Peck, C. (2012). New Guidance on Shared Use Routes. https://www.cyclinguk.org/article/campaign-article/new-guidance-on-shared-use-routes. Accessed 20 May 2019.
  27. Reid, C. (2015). Roads Were Not Built for Cars—How Cyclists Were the First to Push for Good Roads and Became the Pioneers of Motoring. Washington, Covelo, and London: Island Press.Google Scholar
  28. Richardson, M., & Caulfield, B. (2015). Investigating Traffic Light Violations by Cyclists in Dublin City Centre. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 84, 65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rossi, U., & Vanolo, A. (2011). Urban Political Geographies: A Global Perspective. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  30. Sheller, M., & Urry, J. (2000). The City and the Car. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24(4), 737–757.Google Scholar
  31. Smethurst, P. (2015). The Bicycle—Towards a Global History. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sternbergh, A. (2011). ‘I Was a Teenage Cyclist,’ or How Anti-Bike-Lane Arguments Echo the Tea Party. https://6thfloor.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/03/09/i-was-a-teenage-cyclist-or-how-anti-bike-lane-arguments-echo-the-tea-party/. Accessed 10 June 2019.
  33. Swyngedouw, E. (2007). Impossible “Sustainability” and the Postpolitical Condition. In R. Krueger & D. Gibbs (Eds.), The Sustainable Development Paradox: Urban Political Economy in the United States and Europe. New York and London: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  34. UN DESA. (2018). World Urbanization Prospects 2018. https://population.un.org/wup/. Accessed 20 May 2019.
  35. UNRIC. (2018). How Does Cycling Help Achieve the Global Goals? https://www.unric.org/en/latest-un-buzz/31011-how-does-cycling-help-achieve-the-global-goals. Accessed 20 May 2019.
  36. Urry, J. (2004). The ‘System’ of Automobility in Theory. Culture & Society, 21(4–5), 25–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. WHO. (2018). Physical Inactivity: A Global Public Health Problem. https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_inactivity/en/. Accessed 20 May 2019.
  38. Wild, K., Woodward, A., Field, A., & Macmillan, A. (2017). Beyond ‘Bikelash’: Engaging with Community Opposition to Cycle Lanes. Mobilities, 13(4), 505–519.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Culture, Politics and SocietyUniversity of TurinTurinItaly

Personalised recommendations