Prevention Strategies



The alcohol permissive attitude in Europe is marked by a north–south decline. In the north, the drinking habits focus on weekends (e.g. Finland, Great Britain, Scotland, Russia). The Mediterranean people drink more frequently, but small doses throughout the day, mostly ritually bound, like during lunch or dinner. While e.g. Portugal drinks 12.9 L per capita per year, in Belarus the per capita amount is 17.6 L of pure alcohol per year. In middle Europe, the consumption is 11–14 L of alcohol per capita per year/(persons aged > 15 years). Smoking of tobacco is banned in all European countries. In Austria, 30% of the population smoke nicotine. Not only this overall number is a matter of concern, but those persons, smoking in a way, that they reach five or more points on the Fagerström heavy smoking index (tobacco-addicted persons). A general reduction of the availability of tobacco reduces use and abuse, but it never reaches nicotine-addicted persons. This is the prevention that is still needed. Risk groups need further prevention strategies. The tertiary prevention of alcohol and tobacco offers information on help and support within the different social systems.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Division of Social PsychiatryMedical University Vienna, Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyViennaAustria
  2. 2.Caritas der Erzdiözese WienViennaAustria
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Connecticut Health CenterFarmingtonUSA
  4. 4.Neuroscience DepartmentHospital de Santa MariaLisboaPortugal

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