Advertisement

Old Town Tallinn: Medieval Built Heritage Amid Transformation

Chapter
  • 392 Downloads
Part of the The Urban Book Series book series (UBS)

Abstract

The historic centre of Tallinn, Estonia with its medieval old town heritage has become an internationally recognised tourism destination. It has undergone major regeneration in the course of ownership reform which made business investment possible. This transformation of the city has revived relatively deprived quarters of Tallinn’s medieval Old Town after Estonia regained its independence in 1991. Alongside the first wave of gentrification in Tallinn, private and public investments influenced the refurbishment and restoration of historic buildings. This has enhanced these buildings for residential and various socioeconomic and cultural practices, especially tourism. However, with increased popularity, mass tourism, fast commercialisation and scarce public restoration funding are endangering the socio-spatial qualities of this unique medieval heritage space. Gradual regeneration of adjacent more recent historical areas and a modern city centre, conducted in the frame of expansive urban developments in Tallinn, is linked to the city’s rapid growth and inward investments. The plan albeit is to work towards solutions that integrate Tallinn’s Old Town into neighbouring urban areas to diversify urban attractions.

Keywords

Historic centre World heritage Medieval architecture Regeneration Urban tourism Tallinn 

References

  1. Alatalu R (2009) Vanalinnade kaitsetsoonid Eesti NSV-s. Linnasüdamete säilitamine totaalkaitse meetodil. Kunstiteaduslikke Uurimusi 18(3−4):79−93Google Scholar
  2. Alatalu R (2012) Muinsuskaitse siirdeühiskonnas 1986-2002: rahvuslikust südametunnistusest Eesti NSV-s omaniku ahistajaks Eesti Vabariigis. Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, TallinnGoogle Scholar
  3. Alatalu R (2016) Tegusa muinsuskaitse eellugu. Võitlus Tallinna arhitektuuripärandi eest 1944–1958. In: Kreem J (ed) Vana Tallinn, vol 27/31. Tallinna Linnaarhiiv, Tallinn, pp 135–159Google Scholar
  4. Bruns D (2016) Tallinna vanalinna kaitsetsooni sünd. In: Kreem J (ed) Vana Tallinn, vol 27/31. Tallinna Linnaarhiiv, Tallinn, pp 160–171Google Scholar
  5. Davidson M, Lees L (2010) New-build gentrification: its histories, trajectories, and critical geographies. Popul Space Place 16(5):395–411.  https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Cesari K, Dimova R (2019) Heritage, gentrification, participation: remaking urban landscapes in the name of culture and historic preservation. Int J Herit Stud 25(9):863–869.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2018.1542334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eesti Maa-amet (2019). Real estate transactions database https://www.maaamet.ee/kinnisvara/htraru/. Accessed 25 Sept 2019
  8. Garcia-Hernandez M, de la Calle-Vaquero M, Yubero C (2017) Cultural heritage and urban tourism: historic city centres under pressure. Sustainability 9(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081346
  9. Jaakson R (1996) From Marx to market: deciding the urban form of post-Soviet Tallinn Estonia. J Urban Des 1(3):329–354. https://doi.org/10.1080/13574809608724390
  10. Jimura T (2019) World heritage sites: tourism, local communities, and conservation activities. CABI, WallingfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kalm M (2001) Eesti 20. sajandi arhitektuur. Estonian 20th century architecture. Prisma Prindi Kirjastus, TallinnGoogle Scholar
  12. Kask T, Hinsberg A (2012) Tourism landscapes and heritage in change. Tallinn/Kadriorg case (Estonia). In: Kagermeier A, Saarinen, J (eds) Transforming and managing destinations: tourism and leisure in a time of global change and risks. Verlag MetaGIS-Systems, MannheimGoogle Scholar
  13. Kõrghoonete paiknemine Tallinnas (2009) Teemaplaneering. Tallinna Linnaplaneerimise Amet.Google Scholar
  14. Leemet A, Paadam K (2002) Changing neighbourhoods in Tallinn: Mustamäe, Kalamaja, Kadriorg. TTU Press Tallinn, TallinnGoogle Scholar
  15. Lees L, Shin HB, Lopez-Morales E (2017) Planetary gentrification. Urban futures series. Polity Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  16. Lähdesmäki T (2014) Area-based identities and their audience reception in the European capital of culture events in Tallinn 2011. In: Hellrand M (ed) Culture! Capital. Change? Effects of the European capital of culture year on Tallinn’s cultural life. Tallinn Creative Hub, pp 109–131Google Scholar
  17. Martínez F (2015) Tallinn as a city of thresholds. J Balt Stud 46(2):127–155.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01629778.2014.981673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Michelson A (2014) Destination branding and constructing symbolic capital in the reproduction of heritage space: the case of UNESCO designated hanseatic old towns. Tallinn University of Technology Press, TallinnGoogle Scholar
  19. Michelson A, Paadam K (2010a) Residential cultural heritage: constructing symbolic capital in the urban space. In: Amoêda R, Lira S, Pinheiro C (eds). Heritage 2010. Heritage and sustainable development. Green Lines Institute for Sustainable Development, Évora, Portugal, pp 1041−1050Google Scholar
  20. Michelson A, Paadam K (2010b) The construction of commodity-signs upon medieval heritage architecture: spatial approach. In: Zhang C (ed) 2010 international conference on information and finance (ICIF 2010): 2010 international conference on business and economics research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 26–28 Nov 2010. IEEE Press, Chengdu, China, pp 91−94Google Scholar
  21. Michelson A, Paadam K (2016) Destination branding and reconstructing the symbolic capital of urban heritage: a spatially informed observational analysis in medieval towns. J Destin Mark Manag 5(2):141–153.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2015.12.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Murzyn MA (2008) Heritage transformation in Central and Eastern Europe. In: Graham B, Howard P (eds) The Ashgate research companion to heritage and identity. Ashgate, Aldershot, pp 315–346Google Scholar
  23. Nasser N (2003) Planning for urban heritage places: reconciling conservation, tourism, and sustainable development. J Plan Lit 17(4):467–479.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0885412203017004001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nurk R (2008) The heritage conservation in the Estonian Republic during the 1920–1930s. The case of Tallinn medieval town fortifications. Summary. In: Pullat R (ed) Vana Tallinn, vol 19/23. Tallinn, Tallinna Linnaarhiiv, pp 115–116Google Scholar
  25. Nuryanti W (1996) Heritage and postmodern tourism. Ann Tour Res 23(2):249–260.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(95)00062-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Paadam K (2003) Constructing residence as home: homeowners and their housing histories. TPÜ Kirjastus, TallinnGoogle Scholar
  27. Paadam K (2009) Residential policy challenges in Estonia. In: Holt-Jensen A, Pollock E (eds) Urban sustainability and governance: new challenges in Nordic-Baltic housing policies. Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp 179–187Google Scholar
  28. Paadam K, Ojamäe L (2015) Estonia: Learning through ‘societal experiment’. In: Turkington R, Watson C (eds) Renewing Europe's housing. Policy Press, Bristol, pp 123–142Google Scholar
  29. Paadam K, Siilak K, Gromark S (2017) The experience of converted spaces in Tallinn: symbolic change and becoming of identities. In: Gromark S, Ilmonen M, Paadam K, Støa E (eds) Ways of residing in transformation. Interdisciplinary perspectives. Routledge, Farnham, pp 77−101Google Scholar
  30. Palmer C, Tivers J (2019) Heritage for tourism: creating a link between the past and the present. In: Palmer C, Tivers J (eds) Creating heritage for tourism. Abingdon, Oxon, Routledge, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  31. Pawlusiński R, Kubal M (2018) A new take on an old structure? Creative and slow tourism in Krakow (Poland). J Tour Cult Chang 16(3):265–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pindi Kinnisvara AS (2011) Tallinna vanalinna kinnisvara turuülevaade. https://www.pindi.ee/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Turu%C3%BClevaade-2011.-Tallinna-vanalinna-kinnisvara.pdf. Accessed 12 Oct 2019
  33. Ruoppila S (2007) Establishing a market-orientated urban planning system after state socialism: the case of Tallinn. Eur Plan Stud 15(3):405–427.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09654310601017117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sequera S, Nofre J (2018) Shaken, not stirred. City 22(5–6):843–855.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13604813.2018.1548819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tallinn City Government (2019) Statistical yearbook of Tallinn 2019. Tallinna Linnakantselei, TallinnGoogle Scholar
  36. Tallinna Linnavolikogu (2018) Talllinna arengukava 2018−2023. https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/422062018026. Accessed 15 Sep 2019
  37. Tallinna Kesklinna miljööväärtuslike hoonestusalade piiride ning kaitse- ja kasutamistingimuste määramine (2009) Teemaplaneering. Tallinna Linnaplaneerimise AmetGoogle Scholar
  38. Tallinna vanalinna arengukava 2014–2021 (2014) https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/417062014022. Accessed 21 Sep 2019
  39. Tamm J (2018) 20 Years of Old Town of Tallinn as UNESCO World Heritage Site. In: Kreem J (ed) Vana Tallinn, vol 29/33. Tallinna Linnaarhiiv, Tallinn, pp 221–222Google Scholar
  40. Terk E, Sakkeus J, Lassur S, Tafel-Viia K (2016) Vanalinna püsielanike uuring. Tallinn Ülikool, TallinnGoogle Scholar
  41. Unt A-L, Travlou P, Bell S (2014) Blank space: exploring the sublime qualities of urban wilderness at the former fishing harbour in Tallinn Estonia. Landsc Res 39(3):267–286.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01426397.2012.742046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vallner S, Peil I, Niisuke K (2017) Kasvulava. Vana-Kalamaja tänava tänavaruumi arhitektuurivõistlus, seletuskiri. https://www.telliskiviselts.info/sites/default/files/kasvulava_seletuskiri.pdf. Accessed 22 Sept 2019
  43. Vatter O (2014) Communication in destination marketing case study: Tallinn European capital of culture 2011. Procedia - Soc Behav Sci 148:170–176.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wise NA, Mulec I (2012) Headlining Dubrovnik’s tourism image: transitioning representations/narratives of war and heritage preservation, 1991–2010. Tour Recreat Res 37(1):57–69Google Scholar
  45. Zaha Hadid Architects (n.d.) Port of Tallinn Masterplan 2030 for the Old City Harbour. https://www.zaha-hadid.com/masterplans/port-of-tallinn-masterplan-2030-for-the-old-city-harbour/. Accessed 22 Sept 2019
  46. Zukin S (2009) changing landscapes of power: opulence and the urge for authenticity. Int J Urban Reg Res 33(2):543–553.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2009.00867.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zukin S (2010) Naked City: the death and life of authentic urban places. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tallinn University of TechnologyTallinnEstonia

Personalised recommendations