Oil Structuring in Dairy Fat Products

  • Ashok R. PatelEmail author


A range of dairy products are consumed on a regular basis as sources of macronutrients (fats and proteins) and micronutrients such as minerals and fat-soluble vitamins. Among these, there are products such as butter and cheese that form a part of daily diets and then there are others such as whipped cream and ice-creams that are usually considered as indulgence products. From colloid science point of view, these products could be broadly classified as structured emulsions (butter and butter spreads), coagulated gels (various cheese types) and foamed emulsions (ice-creams and whipped creams). These products have different microstructures (Fig. 13.1), all of them containing a significant proportion of milk fat distributed either in the bulk or dispersed phases. Milk fat is composed primarily of triglycerides (TAGs) with a significantly high proportion of saturated fatty acids (Table 13.1). Palmitic acid, the main fatty acid in milk fat, is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (Wang et al., 2017). And it has been consistently suggested by health agencies that replacing dairy fats with vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the risk of CVD (Chen et al., 2016; Nettleton, Brouwer, Geleijnse, & Hornstra, 2017). However, the high melting fraction of milk fat (composed of TAGs rich in long-chain fatty acids) is responsible for providing the underlying colloidal network of crystalline particles, which in turn governs the macrostructure and organoleptic properties of dairy fat products. Such properties include spreadability of butter and cheese spreads, plasticity of baking butter, hardness of cooking butter, voluminous body of whipped cream, texture of cheese, creaminess of ice-cream and melt-in-mouth effect of most dairy fat products. In addition, the stabilizing effect provided by bulk crystallization of milk fat in butter and interfacial stabilization of partially coalesced fat globules in whipped cream and ice cream is also dependent on the high melting TAGs in milk fat. Due to this broad range of functionality provided by milk fat, it is a challenging prospect to replace high melting milk fat with liquid vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids without compromising on the product attributes of reformulated dairy fat products.


  1. Adelmann, H., Binks, B. P., & Mezzenga, R. (2012). Oil powders and gels from particle-stabilized emulsions. Langmuir, 28, 1694–1697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Batte, H. D., Wright, A. J., Rush, J. W., Idziak, S. H. J., & Marangoni, A. G. (2007a). Phase behavior, stability, and mesomorphism of monostearin–oil–water gels. Food Biophysics, 2, 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Batte, H. D., Wright, A. J., Rush, J. W., Idziak, S. H. J., & Marangoni, A. G. (2007b). Effect of processing conditions on the structure of monostearin–oil–water gels. Food Research International, 40, 982–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bemer, H. L., Limbaugh, M., Cramer, E. D., Harper, W. J., & Maleky, F. (2016). Vegetable organogels incorporation in cream cheese products. Food Research International, 85, 67–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bin Sintang, M. D., Rimaux, T., Van de Walle, D., Dewettinck, K., & Patel, A. R. (2017a). Oil structuring properties of monoglycerides and phytosterols mixtures. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 119, 1500517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bin Sintang, M. D., et al. (2017b). Mixed surfactant systems of sucrose esters and lecithin as a synergistic approach for oil structuring. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 504, 387–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blach, C., et al. (2016). Revisiting the crystallization behavior of stearyl alcohol: Stearic acid (SO: SA) mixtures in edible oil. RSC Advances, 6, 81151–81163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bot, A., & Agterof, W. G. M. (2006). Structuring of edible oils by mixtures of γ-oryzanol with β-sitosterol or related phytosterols. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 83, 513–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bot, A., et al. (2012). Elucidation of density profile of self-assembled sitosterol + oryzanol tubules with small-angle neutron scattering. Faraday Discussions, 158, 223–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buerkle, L. E., & Rowan, S. J. (2012). Supramolecular gels formed from multi-component low molecular weight species. Chemical Society Reviews, 41, 6089–6102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chauhan, R. R., Dullens, R. P. A., Velikov, K. P., & Aarts, D. G. A. L. (2017). The effect of colloidal aggregates on fat crystal networks. Food & Function, 8, 352–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen, M., et al. (2016). Dairy fat and risk of cardiovascular disease in 3 cohorts of US adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 104, 1209–1217.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Da Pieve, S., Calligaris, S., Co, E., Nicoli, M. C., & Marangoni, A. G. (2010). Shear nanostructuring of monoglyceride organogels. Food Biophysics, 5, 211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Da Pieve, S., Calligaris, S., Panozzo, A., Arrighetti, G., & Nicoli, M. C. (2011). Effect of monoglyceride organogel structure on cod liver oil stability. Food Research International, 44, 2978–2983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davidovich-Pinhas, M., Barbut, S., & Marangoni, A. G. (2014). Physical structure and thermal behavior of ethylcellulose. Cellulose, 21, 3243–3255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. den Adel, R., Heussen, P. C., & Bot, A. (2010). Effect of water on self-assembled tubules in β-sitosterol + γ-oryzanol-based organogels. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 247, 12025.Google Scholar
  17. Doan, C. D., et al. (2017). Chemical profiling of the major components in natural waxes to elucidate their role in liquid oil structuring. Food Chemistry, 214, 717–725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gandolfo, F. G., Bot, A., & Flöter, E. (2004). Structuring of edible oils by long-chain FA, fatty alcohols, and their mixtures. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 81, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Han, L., et al. (2014). Structure and physical properties of organogels developed by sitosterol and lecithin with sunflower oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 91, 1783–1792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huppertz, T., Kelly, A. L., & Fox, P. F. (2009). Dairy fats and related products (pp. 1–27). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. Scholar
  21. Kerr, R. M., Tombokan, X., Ghosh, S., & Martini, S. (2011). Crystallization behavior of anhydrous milk fat–sunflower oil wax blends. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 2689–2695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Koch, W. (1937). Properties and uses of ethylcellulose. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 29, 687–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu, X., Chen, X.-W., Guo, J., Yin, S.-W., & Yang, X.-Q. (2016). Wheat gluten based percolating emulsion gels as simple strategy for structuring liquid oil. Food Hydrocolloids, 61, 747–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Manzocco, L., et al. (2017). Exploitation of κ-carrageenan aerogels as template for edible oleogel preparation. Food Hydrocolloids, 71, 68–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mezzenga, R., & Ulrich, S. (2010). Spray-dried oil powder with ultrahigh oil content. Langmuir, 26, 16658–16661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nettleton, J. A., Brouwer, I. A., Geleijnse, J. M., & Hornstra, G. (2017). Saturated fat consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke: A science update. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 70, 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nikiforidis, C. V., & Scholten, E. (2014). Self-assemblies of lecithin and [small alpha]-tocopherol as gelators of lipid material. RSC Adv, 4, 2466–2473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ojijo, N. K. O., Neeman, I., Eger, S., & Shimoni, E. (2004). Effects of monoglyceride content, cooling rate and shear on the rheological properties of olive oil/monoglyceride gel networks. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84, 1585–1593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Osaki, N., et al. (2005). Metabolities of dietary triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol during the digestion process in rats. Lipids, 40, 281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Patel, A. R. (2015). In A. R. Patel (Ed.), Alternative routes to oil structuring (pp. 1–14). Cham: Springer. Scholar
  31. Patel, A. R. (2017a). A colloidal gel perspective for understanding oleogelation. Current Opinion in Food Science, 15, 1. Scholar
  32. Patel, A. R. (2017b). Stable ‘arrested’ non-aqueous edible foams based on food emulsifiers. Food & Function, 8, 2115. Scholar
  33. Patel, A. R. (2017c). Methylcellulose-coated microcapsules of Palm stearine as structuring templates for creating hybrid oleogels. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 195, 268–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Patel, A. R., & Dewettinck, K. (2015). Current update on the influence of minor lipid components, shear and presence of interfaces on fat crystallization. Current Opinion in Food Science, 3, 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Patel, A. R., & Dewettinck, K. (2016). Edible oil structuring: An overview and recent updates. Food & Function, 7, 20–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Patel, A., & Edible, R. (2017). ‘Oleocolloids’: The final frontier in food innovation? Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 65, 3432–3433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Patel, A. R., Schatteman, D., De Vos, W. H., & Dewettinck, K. (2013a). Shellac as a natural material to structure a liquid oil-based thermo reversible soft matter system. RSC Advances, 3, 5324–5327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Patel, A. R., Schatteman, D., Lesaffer, A., & Dewettinck, K. (2013b). A foam-templated approach for fabricating organogels using a water-soluble polymer. RSC Advances, 3, 22900–22903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Patel, A. R., Babaahmadi, M., Lesaffer, A., & Dewettinck, K. (2015a). Rheological profiling of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations of natural waxes in a triacylglycerol solvent. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63, 4862–4869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Patel, A. R., Mankoc, B., Bin Sintang, M. D., Lesaffer, A., & Dewettinck, K. (2015b). Fumed silica-based organogels and ‘aqueous-organic’ bigels. RSC Advances, 5, 9703–9708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Patel, A. R., et al. (2015c). Biopolymer-based structuring of liquid oil into soft solids and oleogels using water-continuous emulsions as templates. Langmuir, 31, 2065–2073.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pernetti, M., van Malssen, K., Kalnin, D., & Flöter, E. (2007). Structuring edible oil with lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate. Food Hydrocolloids, 21, 855–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Romoscanu, A. I., & Mezzenga, R. (2006). Emulsion-templated fully reversible protein-in-oil gels. Langmuir, 22, 7812–7818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schaink, H. M., van Malssen, K. F., Morgado-Alves, S., Kalnin, D., & van der Linden, E. (2007). Crystal network for edible oil organogels: Possibilities and limitations of the fatty acid and fatty alcohol systems. Food Research International, 40, 1185–1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tanti, R., Barbut, S., & Marangoni, A. G. (2016). Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose structured oil as a replacement for shortening in sandwich cookie creams. Food Hydrocolloids, 61, 329–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tavernier, I., Patel, A. R., Van der Meeren, P., & Dewettinck, K. (2017). Emulsion-templated liquid oil structuring with soy protein and soy protein: κ-carrageenan complexes. Food Hydrocolloids, 65, 107–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vaikousi, H., Lazaridou, A., Biliaderis, C. G., & Zawistowski, J. (2007). Phase transitions, solubility, and crystallization kinetics of phytosterols and phytosterol–oil blends. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 1790–1798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wang, T.-M., & Rogers, M. A. (2015). Biomimicry – An approach to engineering oils into solid fats. Lipid Technology, 27, 175–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang, Y., et al. (2017). Saturated palmitic acid induces myocardial inflammatory injuries through direct binding to TLR4 accessory protein MD2. Nature Communications, 8, 13997.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wright, A. J., & Marangoni, A. G. (2006). In P. F. Fox & P. L. H. McSweeney (Eds.), Advanced dairy chemistry volume 2 lipids (pp. 245–291). Boston: Springer. Scholar
  51. Zetzl, A. K., Marangoni, A. G., & Barbut, S. (2012). Mechanical properties of ethylcellulose oleogels and their potential for saturated fat reduction in frankfurters. Food & Function, 3, 327–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zulim Botega, D. C., Marangoni, A. G., Smith, A. K., & Goff, H. D. (2013a). The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream. Journal of Food Science, 78, C1334–C1339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zulim Botega, D. C., Marangoni, A. G., Smith, A. K., & Goff, H. D. (2013b). Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream. Journal of Food Science, 78, C1845–C1851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Guangdong Technion Israel Institute of TechnologyShantouChina

Personalised recommendations