Advertisement

Unlearning “Stranger Danger”: Developing Cultural Competence in Canadian Military Professionals Through Collective Learning and Self-Reflection

Chapter
  • 109 Downloads

Abstract

The Canadian Armed Forces has signaled an important shift in how the institution seeks to address diversity within, which has resulted in amendments to professional military education curricula with increased emphasis on developing cultural competencies. Building towards a heutagogic approach, this chapter is presented in three sections. Section “Cultural and institutional barriers to cultural competence: The Canadian case” presents the premise that military professionals can develop cultural competence by critically reflecting upon their own institutional and Canadian cultures. Section “Learning diversity in the classroom: a prerequisite for cultural competence” provides examples of academic work which articulates why the eroding of “us/them” binaries helps people to understand each other better. The final section presents the teaching philosophies and methods needed for this type of skill development. We draw on a teaching philosophy which highlights that educators and learners possess positionality and posit that educators and learners can collectively make visible, and confront, tacit biases, stereotypes, and narrow adversarial worldviews. Applications of this philosophy helps to lay the foundation for heutagogy, a teaching method focused on collaboration, critical self-reflection, and student-driven learning: components which we esteem as beneficial to the development of cultural competence in military members.

Keywords

Culture Professional military education Pedagogy Heutagogy Cultural competence 

References

  1. Ahmed, S. (2007). The language of diversity. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(2), 235–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashe, F. (2012). Gendering war and peace: Militarized masculinities in Northern Ireland. Men and Masculinities, 15(3), 230–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashton, J., & Newman, L. (2006). An unfinished symphony: 21st century teacher education using knowledge creating heutagogies. BJET, 37, 825–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bauman, Z. (1991). Modernity and ambivalence. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bauman, Z. (2003). From bystander to actor. Journal of Human Rights, 2(2), 137–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blaschke, L. M. (2012). Heutagogy and lifelong learning: A review of heutagogical practice and self-determined learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(1), 56–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bourdieu, P. (1990). Principles for reflecting on the curriculum. The Curriculum Journal, 1(3), 307–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bourdieu, P. & Nice, R. (2004). Science of science and reflexivity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, V. (2017). “I was furious that whole roto”: Gender dynamics and hidden learning at the Canadian Forces College. Report on gender dynamics and hidden learning in Institutional Policy Studies Stream, Joint Command and Staff Programme 43, report submitted to Canadian Forces College, Toronto.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, V. (2018). Report on the integration of gender and cultural perspectives and an inclusive learning environment in the Joint Command and Staff Programme. report submitted to Canadian Forces College, Toronto.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, A., Cervero, R., & Johnson-Bailey, J. (2000). Making the invisible visible: Race, gender, and teaching in adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 50(4), 273–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cali, B., Coleman, J., & Campbell, C. (2013). Stranger danger? Women’s self-protection intent and the continuing stigma of online dating. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 16(12), 853–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Canadian Armed Forces. (2002). Canadian forces employment equity regulations (SOR/2002–421).Google Scholar
  14. Canning, N. (2010). Playing with heutagogy: Exploring strategies to empower mature learners in higher education. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 34(1), 59–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carreiras, H. (2006). Gender and the military: Women in the armed forces of Western democracies. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chief of Defence Staff. (2009). Duty with honour: The profession of arms in Canada (2nd ed.). Kingston: Canadian Forces Leadership Institute.Google Scholar
  17. Chief of Defence Staff. (2016). Canadian Armed Forces diversity strategy. Ottawa: Directorate of Human Rights and Diversity.Google Scholar
  18. Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis, K. (2007). Women and leadership in the Canadian Forces: Perspectives and experience. Winnipeg: Canadian Defence Academy Press.Google Scholar
  20. Davis, K., & Wright, J. (2009). Culture and cultural intelligence. In K. Davis (Ed.), Cultural intelligence and leadership: An introduction for Canadian forces leaders (pp. 9–25). Kingston: Canadian Defence Academy Press.Google Scholar
  21. Dean, J. (1995). Reflective solidarity. Constellations, 2(1), 114–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Deschamps, M. (2015). External review into sexual misconduct and sexual harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces. National Defence and the Canadian Forces.Google Scholar
  23. Duncanson, C., & Woodward, R. (2016). Regendering the military: Theorizing women’s military participation. Security Dialogue, 47(1), 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eichler, M. (2012). Militarizing men: Gender, conscription, and war in Post-Soviet Russia. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Febbraro, A. (2007). Gender and leadership in the Canadian forces combat arms: Perspectives of women leaders. In K. D. Davis (Ed.), Women and leadership in the Canadian forces: Perspectives and experience (pp. 93–138). Kingston/Ontario: Canadian Defence Academy Press.Google Scholar
  26. George, T. (2018, October 19–21). Troubling inclusion: Making the case for intersectionality in the Canadian Armed Forces. In paper presented at the Biennial Conference of the Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society – Canada; Ottawa, Ontario.Google Scholar
  27. Ginneken, J. V. (2013). Stranger danger and the epidemic of fear: On the psychology of recent Western reactions to others. The Hague: Eleven International Publishing.Google Scholar
  28. Government of Canada. (2017). Canada’s National Action Plan 2017-2022 - for the implementation of the UN security council resolutions on women. In Peace and security. Ottawa, ON: Global Affairs Canada.Google Scholar
  29. Government of Canada (2018). House of Commons Standing Committee on Public Accounts, Response to Recommendations 1–8 of Report 5, Canadian Armed Forces Recruitment and Retention, of the Fall 2016 Reports of the Auditor General of Canada, 30 April 2018, pgs. 17, p.6.Google Scholar
  30. Guo, S., & Wong, L. (2015). Revisiting multiculturalism in Canada: Theories, policies and debates. Rotterdam: Sense Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harries-Jenkins, G. (1990). The concept of military professionalism. Defense Analysis, 6(2), 117–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hase, S. (2009). Heutagogy and e-learning in the workplace: Some challenges and opportunities. Impact: Journal of Applied Research in Workplace E-Learning, 1(1), 43–52.Google Scholar
  33. Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2001). Moving from andragogy to heutagogy: Implications for vocational education and training. In Proceedings of Research to Reality: Putting VET Research to Work: Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association (AVETRA), Adelaide, SA, 28–30 March, AVETRA, Crows Nest, NSW.Google Scholar
  34. Higate, P. (2007). Peacekeepers, masculinities, and sexual exploitation. Men and Masculinities, 10(1), 99–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Huntington, S. P. (1957). The soldier and the state: The theory and politics of civil-military relations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Irwin, A. L. (2002). The social organization of soldiering: A Canadian infantry company in the field. Doctoral dissertation, University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  37. Irwin, A. (2011). Diversity in the Canadian forces: Lessons from Afghanistan. In C. Leuprecht (Ed.), Defending democracy and securing diversity (pp. 156–167). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Janowitz, M. (1960). The professional soldier. Glencoe: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  39. Kenway, J., & McLeod, J. (2004). Bourdieu’s reflexive sociology and ‘spaces of points of view’: Whose reflexivity, which perspective? British Journal of Sociology of Education, 25(4), 525–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kovitz, M. (2000). The enemy within: Female soldiers in the Canadian forces. Canadian Woman Studies, 19(4), 36–41.Google Scholar
  41. Lane, A. (2017). Special men: The gendered militarization of the Canadian Armed Forces. International Journal, 72(4), 463–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Leonard, D. C. (2002). Learning theories, A to Z. Westport: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  43. Leuprecht, C. (Ed.). (2011). Defending democracy and securing diversity. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. MacLaurin, K. (2006). Organizational values and cultural diversity in the Canadian forces: The case of Aboriginal peoples. In F. Pinch, A. MacIntyre, P. Browne, & A. Okros (Eds.), Challenge and change in the military: Gender and diversity issues (pp. 146–170). Kingston: Canadian Defence Academy Press.Google Scholar
  45. Madsen, C. (2000). Another kind of justice: Canadian military law from confederation to Somalia. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  46. Mitra, R., Faulkner, G. E., Buliung, R. N., & Stone, M. R. (2014). Do parental perceptions of the neighbourhood environment influence children's independent mobility? Evidence from Toronto, Canada. Urban Studies, 51(16), 3401–3419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mohanty, C. (2003). Feminism without borders-decolonizing theory: Practicing solidarity. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nolan, J., Rayes-Goldie, K., & McBride, M. (2011). The stranger danger: Exploring surveillance, autonomy, and privacy in children’s use of social media. Canadian Children, 36(2), 24–31.Google Scholar
  49. Office of the Auditor General. (2016). Canadian Armed Forces recruitment and retention—National Defence (report five). Ottawa, ON: Office of the Auditor General for Canada.Google Scholar
  50. Okros, A., & Scott, D. (2015). Gender identity in the Canadian forces: A review of possible impacts on operational effectiveness. Armed Forces and Society, 41(2), 243–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Parpart, J., & Partridge, K. (2014). Soldiering on: Pushing militarized masculinities into new territories. In M. Evans, C. Hemmings, M. Henry, H. Johnstone, S. Madhok, A. Plomien, & S. Wearing (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of feminist theory (pp. 550–565). Thousand Oaks/London: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pierson, R. R. (1983). Canadian women and the Second World War. Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association.Google Scholar
  53. Pinkerton, C. (2019, May 9). Ex-member says military sexual harassment complaints process needs overhaul. Retrieved October 23, 2019, from IPolitics website: https://ipolitics.ca/2019/05/09/ex-member-says-military-sexual-harassment-complaints-process-needs-overhaul/
  54. Razack, R. (2004). Dark threats and white knights: The Somalia affair, peacekeeping, and the new imperialism. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  55. Reiffenstein, A. (2007). Gender integration as asymmetric environment. In K. D. Davis (Ed.), Women and leadership in the Canadian forces: Perspectives and experience. Kingston: Canadian Defence Academy Press.Google Scholar
  56. Reitz, J. G. (2009). Multiculturalism and social cohesion: Potentials and challenges of diversity. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Samaroo, S. (2012). An investigation into the practicality and applicability of the pedandragogic framework: A case study of faculty attitude toward a learner-centered model of teaching and learning at a university in the southern United States. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.Google Scholar
  58. Taber, N. (2009). The profession of arms: Ideological codes and dominant narratives of gender in the Canadian military. Atlantis, 34(1), 27–36.Google Scholar
  59. Taber, N. (2015). Gendered militarism in Canada: Learning conformity and resistance. Edmonton: The University of Alberta Press.Google Scholar
  60. Thomson, K., & Jones, J. (2016). Colonials in camouflage: Metonymy, mimicry and the reproduction of the colonial order in the age of diversity. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 35, 58–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Touraine, A. (1998). Can we live together, equal and different? European Journal of Social Theory, 1(2), 165–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vasta, E. (2010). The controllability of difference: Social cohesion and the new politics of solidarity. Ethnicities, 10(4), 503–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wax, N. (2016). Parenting styles-the concept of ‘stranger danger’ and instilling child safety skills (Order no. 10112469). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.Google Scholar
  64. Whitworth, S. (2004). Men, militarism and UN peacekeeping. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  65. Whitworth, S. (2005). Militarized masculinities and the politics of peacekeeping: The Canadian case. In K. Booth (Ed.), Critical security studies in world politics (pp. 89–106). Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  66. Winslow, D., & Dunn, J. (2002). Women in the Canadian forces: Between legal and social integration. Current Sociology, 50(5), 641–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dallaire Centre of Excellence for Peace and SecurityTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Canadian Forces CollegeONCanada

Personalised recommendations