Advertisement

Conclusion

  • Robert McLean
  • Grace Robinson
  • James A. Densley
Chapter
  • 128 Downloads
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Criminology book series (BRIEFSCRIMINOL)

Abstract

In this book, we have explored the IDM within the UK and looked to provide an in-depth understanding of the latest supply model known as County Lines. In Part I of the book we provided context to the IDM and briefly explored developments in supply processes to discuss the exploitative techniques of OCGs and how they affect the actors involved. We then discussed the two research sites, Glasgow and Merseyside, and identified how the two locations have seen increases in unemployment and erosion of many working-class communities, largely attributed to deindustrialisation. Against a backdrop of austere government policy, we examined how the two sites have been affected by deprivation, marginalisation and social exclusion and postulated with some of the motivations behind involvement in the IDM, before introducing the reader to the participants involved and how research was collected from the two studies. The second chapter in Part I included a review of the literature. Here we analysed previous and current literature to date on Child Criminal Exploitation, County Lines activity and cuckooing.

Keywords

IDM County lines drug supply UK drug markets Implications Research limitations Drug prohibition De-penalisation 

References

  1. Atkinson-Sheppard, S. (2015). The gangs of Bangladesh: Exploring organized crime, street gangs and ‘illicit child labourers’ in Dhaka. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 16, 233–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Briggs, D. (2010). Crack houses in the UK: Some observations on their operations. Drugs and Alcohol Today, 10, 33–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Densley, J. (2014). It’s gang life, but not as we know it: The evolution of gang business. Crime and Delinquency, 60, 517–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dent, J. (2018). Modern Slavery Act 2015: Recent developments. Commons briefing papers CBP-7656 [online]. Available at: http://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/CBP-7656
  5. HMICFRS. (2017). Stolen freedom: the policing response to modern slavery and human trafficking. London: HMICFRSGoogle Scholar
  6. McLean, R. (2019). Gangs, drugs and (dis)organised crime. Bristol: Bristol University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. McPhee, I., Duffy, T., & Martin, C. R. (2009). The perspectives of drug users within the social context of drug prohibition. Drugs Alcohol Today, 9(2), 19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Metropolitan Police Service. (2017). Two convicted of human trafficking offences [online]. Available at: http://news.met.police.uk/news/two-convicted-of-human-trafficking-offences-283644
  9. NCA. (2017). County Lines Violence, Exploitation & Drug Supply 2017. National Briefing Report. London: National Crime Agency.Google Scholar
  10. Pepin, S. (2018). County lines exploitation in London. Commons Debate Packs CDP-2018-0009 [online]. Available at: https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/CDP-2018-0009
  11. Stevens, A. (2011). Drugs, crime and public health. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Sykes, G., & Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 22, 664–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Thomas, J. (2016). Speke man charged with murder of Michael Warham in Shrewsbury. Liverpool Echo [online]. Available at: https://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/speke-man-charged-murder-michael-11773036

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert McLean
    • 1
  • Grace Robinson
    • 2
  • James A. Densley
    • 3
  1. 1.Northumbria UniversityNewcastleUK
  2. 2.CriminologyBlackpool and the Fylde CollegeLancashireUK
  3. 3.Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Education CenterMetropolitan State UniversityBrooklyn ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations