• Christopher Kirkland


This chapter draws upon the data presented in the previous chapters to offer a means of conceptualising British elections. In doing so it highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the existing first- and second-order model drawing upon the methodological critique established in Chapter  1. The present chapter draws upon data from the period 2010–2017 to highlight how subnational elections attach varying degrees of salience from the media and political parties as well as the electorate before offering some further considerations of the new model proposed within this book.


Classifying elections First order Salience Second order Subnational elections 


  1. European Parliament. (2018). European Elections: Common Rules and National Provisions. Accessed 28 July 2019.
  2. Reif, K., & Schmitt, H. (1980). Nine Second-Order National Elections—A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of European Election Results. European Journal of Political Research, 8(1), 3–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Kirkland
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Humanities, Religion and PhilosophyYork St John UniversityYorkUK

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