• Christopher Kirkland


Turnout is often understood as being central to elections. Voters are not only the ultimate decision-makers in times of elections but voter turnout is often used as a means of conceptualising the importance of elections. Such statistics are further central to the distinction of first- and second-order elections as advocated by Reif and Schmitt. This chapter explores levels of turnout in different British elections, drawing upon examples from general elections and European elections. In doing so it demonstrates some of the differences that exist between turnout in a range of elections. It highlights turnout fluctuations within elections of the same type and between subnational or second-order elections.


European elections General elections Turnout Voters 


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© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Kirkland
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Humanities, Religion and PhilosophyYork St John UniversityYorkUK

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