This chapter highlights some of the weaknesses of shoehorning “new” elections into a model designed to demonstrate differences between national and European elections. It argues that using the terminology of first- and second-order elections is problematic given the new elections introduced to Britain over the last two decades. Rather than relying upon such terminology, it outlines how a more holistic classification of elections may be achieved and argues that in order to achieve this we should broaden our analysis of groups involved from simply voters to include political parties and the media. As well as offering a new method for understanding British elections, it argues that rather than distinguishing between first- and second-order a more accurate classification would differentiate elections based on geography—between national and subnational elections.
KeywordsPolitical parties Subnational elections The media Turnout Voters
- Arnett, G. (2016, February 1). MPs Ignorant of Key EU Institutions—Poll. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/datablog/2016/feb/01/mps-ignorant-eu-institutions-poll-ipsos-mori-european-union. Accessed 6 Sept 2019.
- Audickas, L., Dempsey, N., & Keen, R. (2018, September 3). House of Commons Library Briefing Paper Number SN05125 Membership of UK Political Parties. Retrieved from House of Commons Library: https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/.
- Berkowitz, D. A. (1997). Social Meanings of News. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Cohen, S., & Young, J. (1973). The Manufacture of News: Social Problems, Deviance and the Mass Media. London: Constable.Google Scholar
- Cook, F. L., Tyler, T. R., Goetz, E. G., Gordon, M. T., Protess, D., Leff, D. R., & Molotoch, H. L. (1983). Media and Agenda Setting: Effects on the Public, Interest Groups Leaders, Policy Makers and Policy. Public Opinion Quarterly, 47(1), 16–35.Google Scholar
- Dalton, R. J., Farrell, D. M., & McAllister, I. (2011). Political Parties and Democratic Linkage: How Parties Organize Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Dearing, J. W., & Rodger, E. M. (1996). Agenda Setting. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- English, P., Grasso, M. T., Buraczynska, B., Karampampas, S., & Temple, L. (2016). Convergence on Crisis? Comparing Labour and Conservative Framing of the Economic Crisis in Britain, 2008–14. Politics & Policy, 44(3), 577–603.Google Scholar
- Heath, A., McLean, I., Taylor, B., & Curtice, J. (1999). Between First and Second Order: A Comparison of Voting Behaviour in European and Local Elections in Britain. European Journal of Political Research, 35(3), 389–414.Google Scholar
- Ipsos MORI. (2016, January). Economist/Ipsos MORI January 2016 Issues Index. Ipsos MORI. https://www.ipsos.com/ipsos-mori/en-uk/economist-ipsos-mori-january-2016-issues-index. Accessed 9 Dec 2018.
- Lucas, C. (2017, November 1). Caroline Lucas: A Fairer Electoral System Would Tackle Why People Don’t Vote. Electoral Reform Society. https://www.electoral-reform.org.uk/-electoral-system-would-tackle-some-of-the-reasons-people-dont-vote/. Accessed 9 Dec 2018.
- Mawby, R. I., & Smith, K. (2016). Civilian Oversight of the Police in England and Wales: The Election of Police and Crime Commissioners in 2012 and 2016. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 19(1), 23–30.Google Scholar
- Musson, S., John, P., & Tickell, A. (2009). Campaigning and the Media: The North-East Referendum of November 2004. In M. Sandford (Ed.), The Northern Veto (pp. 72–87). Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
- Norris, P. (2003, August). Will New Technology Boost Turnout? Evaluating Experiments in E-Voting V: All-Postal Voting Facilities in UK Local Elections (KSG Working Papers Series No. RWP03-034) [online]. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.437140.
- Pratchett, L., & Wingfield, M. (2004). Electronic Voting in the United Kingdom: Lessons and Limitations from the UK Experience. In N. Kersting & H. Baldershiem (Eds.), Electronic Voting and Democracy (pp. 172–189). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Rose, R. (1984). Do Parties Make a Difference? London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Schattschneider, E. E. (1942). Party Government. New York: Rinehart.Google Scholar
- Shoemaker, P. J. (1997). A New Gatekeeping Model. In D. Berkowirz (Ed.), Social Meaning of News (pp. 57–62). London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Van Gorp, B. (2006). The Constructionist Approach to Framing: Bringing Culture Back In. Journal of Communication, 57(1), 60–78.Google Scholar
- White, D. M. (1997). The ‘Gatekeeper’: A Case Study in the Selection of News. In D. Berkowitz (Ed.), Social Meanings of News (pp. 63–71). London: Sage.Google Scholar