Hydrodynamics Versus Hydraulics
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In the beginning of the 20th century the study of fluid motion fell into one of two classes: either the observed flow could be described in terms of hydrodynamics, or it eluded theory and belonged to the realm of hydraulic engineering, like pipe- or channel flow. The discrepant results of hydrodynamics versus hydraulics illustrated the gulf between theory and practice—and turbulence was regarded as the culprit. The rise of aeronautics added further challenges. Wind tunnel investigations hinted at turbulence effects that eluded theoretical analysis.