Advertisement

Zooming in on EU–Tunisia Relations Across the 2011 Upheavals

  • Federica ZardoEmail author
Chapter
Part of the The European Union in International Affairs book series (EUIA)

Abstract

As a small, developing state, Tunisia has always been caught between protecting internal security, building a strong economy despite limited resources and seeking its place at a regional level. This chapter traces EU–Tunisia relations from a historical perspective, focusing especially on the changes in the balance of power, Tunisian foreign policy choices, and the cultural and identity variables determining these choices. It describes the legacies of Bourguibism on the country’s attitudes towards Europe, the strategic construction and deconstruction of the political discourse on the ‘Tunisian specificity’ and how this approach features in EU–Tunisia relations under the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, European Neighbourhood Policy and its review after Ben Ali’s getaway.

Keywords

Arab uprisings Bourguiba Ben Ali Tunisia Authoritarianism Democratic Transition 

References

  1. Abderrahim, T., Krüger, L. T., Besbes, S., & McLarren, K. (2017). Tunisia’s International Relations Since the ‘Arab Spring’: Transition Inside and Out. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Achcar, G. (2013). The People Want: A Radical Exploration of the Arab Uprising. Berkeley: California University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Barbé, E. (1996). The Barcelona Conference: Launching Pad of a Process. Mediterranean Politics, 1(1), 25–42.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13629399608414565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bicchi, F. (2004, June). The European Origins of Euro-Mediterranean Practices (Institute of European Studies Working Paper AY0406-12). University of Berkeley. Available online: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8c44c395. Accessed 21 June 2019.
  5. Bourguiba, H. (1965). The Tunisian Way. Foreign Affairs, 44(480). Available online: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/tunisia/1966-04-01/tunisian-way. Accessed 21 June 2019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bourquin, A. (2005). Entre Bourguiba et Hannibal - Identité tunisienne et histoire depuis l’indépendance. Paris: KARTHALA Editions.Google Scholar
  7. Cavatorta, F., & Durac, V. (2013). The Foreign Policies of the European Union and the United States in North Africa: Diverging or Converging Dynamics? London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Cavatorta, F., & Hostrup Haugbølle, R. (2012). The End of Authoritarian Rule and the Mythology of Tunisia Under Ben Ali. Mediterranean Politics, 17(2), 179–195.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13629395.2012.694043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cavatorta, F., & Merone, F. (2013). Political and Social Assessment of Tunisia Pre and Post the “Arab Spring”. In R. Di Peri & R. Giordana (Eds.), Revolution Without Revolutions? The Challenges of Tourism Sector in Tunisia. Bologna: I libri di Emil.Google Scholar
  10. Deeb, M.-J. (1989). Inter-Maghribi Relations Since 1969: A Study of the Modalities of Unions and Mergers. Middle East Journal, 43(1), 20–33.Google Scholar
  11. Deeb, M.-J., & Laipson, E. (1991). Tunisian Foreign Policy: Continuity and Change Under Bourguiba and Ben Ali. In I. W. Zartman (Ed.), Tunisia: The Political Economy of Reform. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  12. de Vasconcelos, A. (1988). Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: Part II. The Adelphi Papers, 28(230), 45–56.  https://doi.org/10.1080/05679328808457577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Di Peri, R., & Giordana, R. (2013). Revolution Without Revolutions? The Challanges of Tourism Sector in Tunisia. Bologna: I libri di Emil.Google Scholar
  14. El Houssi, L. (2013, September). Dalla Transculturalità All’Islamicità? Il Caso Della Tunisia. MEMORIA E RICERCA, 43, 85–94.Google Scholar
  15. EU–Tunisia Association Council. (2012). Neuvième Session Du Conseil d’Association EU-Tunisie.Google Scholar
  16. Fontana, I. (2017). EU Neighbourhood Policy in the Maghreb: Implementing the ENP in Tunisia and Morocco Before and After the Arab Uprisings. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Gana, N. (2013). The Making of the Tunisian Revolution: Contexts, Architects, Prospects. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Gänzle, S. (2009). EU Governance and the European Neighbourhood Policy: A Framework for Analysis. Europe-Asia Studies, 61(10), 1715–1734.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09668130903278926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gomez, R. (2003). Negotiating the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership: Strategic Action in EU Foreign Policy? London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  20. Grimaud, N. (1995). La Spécificité Tunisienne En Question. Politique Étrangère, 60(2), 389–402.  https://doi.org/10.3406/polit.1995.4417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hibou, B. (1999). Tunisie: Le Coût d’un «miracle». Critique Internationale, 4(1), 48–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hibou, B. (2011). The Force of Obedience. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  23. Hibou, B., & Khiari, S. (2011). La Révolution tunisienne ne vient pas de nulle part. Politique Africaine, 121(1), 23–34.  https://doi.org/10.3917/polaf.121.0023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hibou, H. M., & Hamdi, M. (2011). La Tunisie d’après Le 14 Janvier et Son Économie Politique et Sociale. Réseau euro-méditerranéen des Droits de l’Homme. Available online: https://www.ritimo.org/IMG/pdf/EuroMed-Rapport_Tunisie.pdf. Accessed 21 June 2019.
  25. Hinnebusch, R. (2015). Change and Continuity After the Arab Uprising: The Consequences of State Formation in Arab North African States. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 42(1), 12–30.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13530194.2015.973182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hinnebusch, R. A., & Ehteshami, A. (2002). The Foreign Policies of Middle East States. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  27. Kausch, K. (2013). The End of the (Southern) Neighbourhood (IEMED Paper No. 18). Available online: http://www.iemed.org/publicacions-en/historic-de-publicacions/papersiemed-euromesco/18.-the-end-of-the-southern-neighbourhood. Accessed 21 June 2019.
  28. Lavenex, S. (2004). EU External Governance in “Wider Europe”. Journal of European Public Policy, 11(4), 680–700.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1350176042000248098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lavenex, S., & Schimmelfennig, F. (2009). EU Rules Beyond EU Borders: Theorizing External Governance in European Politics. Journal of European Public Policy, 16(6), 791–812.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13501760903087696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maddy-Weitzman, B. (1999). Middle East Contemporary Survey. New York: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Malmvig, H., & Lassen, C. M. (2013). Arab Uprisings: Regional Implications and International Responses (IEMed Papers, Mediterranean Yearbook 2013). Available online: https://www.iemed.org/observatori-en/arees-danalisi/arxius-adjunts/anuari/iemed-2013/Malmvig%20Lassen%20Arab%20Uprisings%20Regional%20Implications%20EN.pdf. Accessed 21 June 2019.
  32. Mbougueng, V. (1999). Ben Ali et le modèle tunisien. Paris: Les Ed. de l’Orient.Google Scholar
  33. Merone, F. (2015). Enduring Class Struggle in Tunisia: The Fight for Identity Beyond Political Islam. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 42(1), 74–87.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13530194.2015.973188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moore, C. H. (1965). Tunisia Since Independence: The Dynamics of One-Party Government. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  35. Murphy, E. (2002). The Foreign Policy of Tunisia. In R. Hinnebusch & A. Ehteshami (Eds.), The Foreign Policies of the Middle East States. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  36. Murphy, E. (2013a). Under the Emperor’s Neo-Liberal Clothes: How the IFIs Got It Wrong in Tunisia. In N. Gana (Ed.), Genealogies of Dissent: The Making of the Tunisian Revolution. Edinburgh: Edinburg University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Murphy, E. (2013b). The Tunisian Elections of October 2011: A Democratic Consensus. The Journal of North African Studies, 18(2), 231–247.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13629387.2012.739299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. OECD. (2012). The Economic Situation and the Role of Foreign Direct Investment in Tunisia. OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Tunisia 2012, 25–46. Available online: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/finance-and-investment/oecd-investment-policy-reviews-tunisia-2012/the-economic-situation-and-the-role-of-foreign-direct-investment-in-tunisia_9789264179172-4-en. Accessed 21 June 2019.
  39. OECD. (2015). Country Programmable Aid (CPA) Data Series by Donor and Country from 2000 to 2012—Knoema.Com. Knoema. Available online: http://knoema.com/OECDCPADC2014/country-programmable-aid-cpa-data-series-by-donor-and-country-from-2000-to-2012?donor=1000380-arab-fund-afesd. Accessed 21 June 2019.
  40. Pace, Michelle. (2005). Imagining Co-presence in Euro-Mediterranean Relations: The Role of “Dialogue”. Mediterranean Politics, 10(3), 291–312.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13629390500289326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Perkins, K. (2014). A History of Modern Tunisia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Pickard, D. (2011). Challenges to Legitimate Governance in Post-revolution Tunisia. The Journal of North African Studies, 16(4), 637–652.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13629387.2011.639563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Powel, B., & Sadiki, L. (2010). Europe and Tunisia: Democratisation via Association. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schmid, D. (2004). The Use of Conditionality in Support of Political, Economic and Social Rights: Unveiling the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership’s True Hierarchy of Objectives? Mediterranean Politics, 9(3), 396–421.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1362939042000259942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sons, S., & Wiese, I. (2015). The Engagement of Arab Gulf States in Egypt and Tunisia Since 2011: Rationale and Impact (DGAP-Analyse, 9, p. 85). Berlin: Forschungsinstitut Der Deutschen Gesellschaft Für Auswärtige Politik E.Google Scholar
  46. Teti, A. (2012). The EU’s First Response to the “Arab Spring”: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Partnership for Democracy and Shared Prosperity. Mediterranean Politics, 17(3), 266–284.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13629395.2012.725297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. UNCTAD. (2018). UNCTAD | Country Fact Sheets 2018. Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Available online: https://unctad.org/en/Pages/DIAE/World%20Investment%20Report/Country-Fact-Sheets.aspx. Accessed 21 June 2019.
  48. United Nations, ESCWA. (2014). The Libyan Conflict and Its Impact on Egypt and Tunisia (E/ESCWA/EDGD/2014/Brief.1). Available online: http://www.escwa.un.org/main/docs/EDGDLibyaAug2014.pdf. Accessed 21 June 2019.
  49. Van Hüllen, V. (2012). Europeanisation Through Cooperation? EU Democracy Promotion in Morocco and Tunisia. West European Politics, 35(1), 117–134.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2012.631317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ware, L. B. (1988). Ben Ali’s Constitutional Coup in Tunisia. Middle East Journal, 42(4), 587–601.Google Scholar
  51. White, G. (2014). A Comparative Political Economy of Tunisia and Morocco: On the Outside of Europe Looking In. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  52. Youngs, R. (2002). The European Union and Democracy Promotion in the Mediterranean: A New or Disingenuous Strategy? Democratisation, 9(1), 40–62.  https://doi.org/10.1080/714000237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zardo, F., & Cavatorta, F. (2018). Friends Will Be Friends? External–Domestic Interactions in EU–Tunisia and EU–Morocco Security Cooperation After the Uprisings. International Politics, 1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1057/s41311-018-0158-9.
  54. Zartman, I. W. (1991). Tunisia: The Political Economy of Reform. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  55. Zartman, I. W., & Rubin, J. Z. (2004). Power and Negotiation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Politikwissenschaft, EIFUniversity of ViennaWienAustria

Personalised recommendations