A Geometric Morphometrics-Based Mapping Model of Leaf Shape Evolution

  • Yige Cao
  • Xuli Zhu
  • Rongling Wu
  • Lidan SunEmail author


Understanding how leaf shape diversifies and evolves requires the genetic information that encodes morphological variation within and between species. Genetic mapping provides a unique way for the dissection of leaf shape into its underlying Mendelian genes, known as quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but this approach relies on how leaf shape is quantified. In this chapter, we describe a computational approach that integrates geometric morphometrics (GM)-based shape analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) into the statistical framework of genetic mapping. This approach can map how QTLs affect both global and detailed variation of leaf shape. We demonstrate its utility by applying it to the genetic mapping study of a woody plant—mei (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc). This approach could serve as a powerful tool to understand the genetic basis underlying the natural variation and evolution of leaf shape in plants.


Leaf Leaf shape Shape QTL Shape mapping Woody plant 



This work is supported by grants National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.31401900) and Special Fund for Forest Scientific Research in the Public Welfare (201404102).


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Computational Biology, College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.National Engineering Research Center for FloricultureBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Center for Statistical Genetics, The Pennsylvania State UniversityHersheyUSA

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