Advertisement

Novel and Emerging Chemotherapeutic Agents in Head and Neck Cancer

  • Arielle Elkrief
  • Nicholas Makhoul
  • Nathaniel BouganimEmail author
Chapter
  • 268 Downloads

Abstract

Despite the advancements in the treatment of squamous head and neck cancer in the past decade, clinical outcomes still remain poor. The use of multimodality treatment and the advent of targeted therapies have improved outcomes. This chapter will provide a brief overview of the current management for squamous head and neck cancers in both the locally advanced and metastatic settings. We will then outline targeted therapies currently in use or under investigation for the treatment of both locally advanced and metastatic head and neck cancer.

Keywords

Head and neck cancer Chemotherapy Targeted therapy Monoclonal antibodies Tyrosine kinase inhibitors 

References

  1. 1.
    Wheless SA, McKinney KA, Zanation AM. A prospective study of the clinical impact of a multidisciplinary head and neck tumor board. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;143(5):650–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wuthrick EJ, Zhang Q, Machtay M, Rosenthal DI, Nguyen-Tan PF, Fortin A, et al. Institutional clinical trial accrual volume and survival of patients with head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(2):156–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Posner MR, Hershock DM, Blajman CR, Mickiewicz E, Winquist E, Gorbounova V, et al. Cisplatin and fluorouracil alone or with docetaxel in head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(17):1705–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brockstein B, Haraf DJ, Rademaker AW, Kies MS, Stenson KM, Rosen F, et al. Patterns of failure, prognostic factors and survival in locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy: a 9-year, 337-patient, multi-institutional experience. Ann Oncol. 2004;15(8):1179–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bourhis J, Le Maitre A, Baujat B, Audry H, Pignon JP. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy in head NCCG, et al. Individual patients’ data meta-analyses in head and neck cancer. Curr Opin Oncol. 2007;19(3):188–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alvi A, Johnson JT. Development of distant metastasis after treatment of advanced-stage head and neck cancer. Head Neck. 1997;19(6):500–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bhatia R, Bahadur S. Distant metastasis in malignancies of the head and neck. J Laryngol Otol. 1987;101(9):925–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Garavello W, Ciardo A, Spreafico R, Gaini RM. Risk factors for distant metastases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132(7):762–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pignon JP, le Maitre A, Maillard E, Bourhis J, Group M-NC. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer (MACH-NC): an update on 93 randomised trials and 17,346 patients. Radiother Oncol. 2009;92(1):4–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haddad R, O'Neill A, Rabinowits G, Tishler R, Khuri F, Adkins D, et al. Induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (sequential chemoradiotherapy) versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone in locally advanced head and neck cancer (PARADIGM): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(3):257–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hitt R, Grau JJ, Lopez-Pousa A, Berrocal A, Garcia-Giron C, Irigoyen A, et al. A randomized phase III trial comparing induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy versus chemoradiotherapy alone as treatment of unresectable head and neck cancer. Ann Oncol. 2014;25(1):216–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cohen EE, Karrison TG, Kocherginsky M, Mueller J, Egan R, Huang CH, et al. Phase III randomized trial of induction chemotherapy in patients with N2 or N3 locally advanced head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(25):2735–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ghi MG, Paccagnella A, Ferrari D, Foa P, Alterio D, Codeca C, et al. Induction TPF followed by concomitant treatment versus concomitant treatment alone in locally advanced head and neck cancer. A phase II-III trial. Ann Oncol. 2017;28(9):2206–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lorch JH, Goloubeva O, Haddad RI, Cullen K, Sarlis N, Tishler R, et al. Induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and fluorouracil alone or in combination with docetaxel in locally advanced squamous-cell cancer of the head and neck: long-term results of the TAX 324 randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12(2):153–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vermorken JB, Remenar E, van Herpen C, Gorlia T, Mesia R, Degardin M, et al. Cisplatin, fluorouracil, and docetaxel in unresectable head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(17):1695–704.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Blanchard P, Bourhis J, Lacas B, Posner MR, Vermorken JB, Cruz Hernandez JJ, et al. Taxane-cisplatin-fluorouracil as induction chemotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancers: an individual patient data meta-analysis of the meta-analysis of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer group. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(23):2854–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Adelstein DJ, Li Y, Adams GL, Wagner H Jr, Kish JA, Ensley JF, et al. An intergroup phase III comparison of standard radiation therapy and two schedules of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with unresectable squamous cell head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(1):92–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Forastiere AA, Goepfert H, Maor M, Pajak TF, Weber R, Morrison W, et al. Concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for organ preservation in advanced laryngeal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003;349(22):2091–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fountzilas G, Ciuleanu E, Dafni U, Plataniotis G, Kalogera-Fountzila A, Samantas E, et al. Concomitant radiochemotherapy vs radiotherapy alone in patients with head and neck cancer: a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Phase III Study. Med Oncol. 2004;21(2):95–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Posner MR, Norris CM, Wirth LJ, Shin DM, Cullen KJ, Winquist EW, et al. Sequential therapy for the locally advanced larynx and hypopharynx cancer subgroup in TAX 324: survival, surgery, and organ preservation. Ann Oncol. 2009;20(5):921–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bourhis J, Sire C, Graff P, Gregoire V, Maingon P, Calais G, et al. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy versus acceleration of radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy in locally advanced head and neck carcinoma (GORTEC 99-02): an open-label phase 3 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(2):145–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Clavel M, Vermorken JB, Cognetti F, Cappelaere P, de Mulder PH, Schornagel JH, et al. Randomized comparison of cisplatin, methotrexate, bleomycin and vincristine (CABO) versus cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (CF) versus cisplatin (C) in recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A phase III study of the EORTC Head and Neck Cancer Cooperative Group. Ann Oncol. 1994;5(6):521–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Forastiere AA, Metch B, Schuller DE, Ensley JF, Hutchins LF, Triozzi P, et al. Randomized comparison of cisplatin plus fluorouracil and carboplatin plus fluorouracil versus methotrexate in advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a Southwest Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol. 1992;10(8):1245–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jacobs C, Lyman G, Velez-Garcia E, Sridhar KS, Knight W, Hochster H, et al. A phase III randomized study comparing cisplatin and fluorouracil as single agents and in combination for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol. 1992;10(2):257–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gibson MK, Li Y, Murphy B, Hussain MH, DeConti RC, Ensley J, et al. Randomized phase III evaluation of cisplatin plus fluorouracil versus cisplatin plus paclitaxel in advanced head and neck cancer (E1395): an intergroup trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(15):3562–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rivera F, Garcia-Castano A, Vega N, Vega-Villegas ME, Gutierrez-Sanz L. Cetuximab in metastatic or recurrent head and neck cancer: the EXTREME trial. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2009;9(10):1421–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dorsey K, Agulnik M. Promising new molecular targeted therapies in head and neck cancer. Drugs. 2013;73(4):315–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hynes NE, Horsch K, Olayioye MA, Badache A. The ErbB receptor tyrosine family as signal integrators. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2001;8(3):151–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kruger JS, Reddy KB. Distinct mechanisms mediate the initial and sustained phases of cell migration in epidermal growth factor receptor-overexpressing cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2003;1(11):801–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Masuda M, Toh S, Koike K, Kuratomi Y, Suzui M, Deguchi A, et al. The roles of JNK1 and Stat3 in the response of head and neck cancer cell lines to combined treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid and 5-fluorouracil. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2002;93(3):329–39.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vivanco I, Sawyers CL. The phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase AKT pathway in human cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002;2(7):489–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ellerbroek SM, Halbleib JM, Benavidez M, Warmka JK, Wattenberg EV, Stack MS, et al. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in epidermal growth factor-stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 production and cell surface association. Cancer Res. 2001;61(5):1855–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Agulnik M. New approaches to EGFR inhibition for locally advanced or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Med Oncol. 2012;29(4):2481–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bonner JA, Harari PM, Giralt J, Azarnia N, Shin DM, Cohen RB, et al. Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(6):567–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bonner JA, Harari PM, Giralt J, Cohen RB, Jones CU, Sur RK, et al. Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer: 5-year survival data from a phase 3 randomised trial, and relation between cetuximab-induced rash and survival. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11(1):21–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ang KK, Zhang Q, Rosenthal DI, Nguyen-Tan PF, Sherman EJ, Weber RS, et al. Randomized phase III trial of concurrent accelerated radiation plus cisplatin with or without cetuximab for stage III to IV head and neck carcinoma: RTOG 0522. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(27):2940–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Saloura V, Vokes EE. EGFR-based bioradiotherapy in SCCHN. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(2):129–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mesia R, Henke M, Fortin A, Minn H, Yunes Ancona AC, Cmelak A, et al. Chemoradiotherapy with or without panitumumab in patients with unresected, locally advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck (CONCERT-1): a randomised, controlled, open-label phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(2):208–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Siu LL, Waldron JN, Chen BE, Winquist E, Wright JR, Nabid A, et al. Effect of standard radiotherapy with cisplatin vs accelerated radiotherapy with panitumumab in locoregionally advanced squamous cell head and neck carcinoma: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Oncol. 2017;3(2):220–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Giralt J, Trigo J, Nuyts S, Ozsahin M, Skladowski K, Hatoum G, et al. Panitumumab plus radiotherapy versus chemoradiotherapy in patients with unresected, locally advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck (CONCERT-2): a randomised, controlled, open-label phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(2):221–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vermorken JB, Stohlmacher-Williams J, Davidenko I, Licitra L, Winquist E, Villanueva C, et al. Cisplatin and fluorouracil with or without panitumumab in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SPECTRUM): an open-label phase 3 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(8):697–710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bastholt L, Specht L, Jensen K, Brun E, Loft A, Petersen J, et al. Phase I/II clinical and pharmacokinetic study evaluating a fully human monoclonal antibody against EGFr (HuMax-EGFr) in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Radiother Oncol. 2007;85(1):24–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Machiels JP, Subramanian S, Ruzsa A, Repassy G, Lifirenko I, Flygare A, et al. Zalutumumab plus best supportive care versus best supportive care alone in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy: an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12(4):333–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schick U, Gujral DM, Richards TM, Harrington KJ, Nutting CM. Zalutumumab in head and neck cancer. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2012;12(1):119–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Argiris A, Ghebremichael M, Gilbert J, Lee JW, Sachidanandam K, Kolesar JM, et al. Phase III randomized, placebo-controlled trial of docetaxel with or without gefitinib in recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer: an eastern cooperative oncology group trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(11):1405–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cohen EE, Rosen F, Stadler WM, Recant W, Stenson K, Huo D, et al. Phase II trial of ZD1839 in recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(10):1980–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Martins RG, Parvathaneni U, Bauman JE, Sharma AK, Raez LE, Papagikos MA, et al. Cisplatin and radiotherapy with or without erlotinib in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a randomized phase II trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(11):1415–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Harrington KJ, Berrier A, Robinson M, Remenar E, Housset M, Mendoza FH, et al. Phase II study of oral lapatinib, a dual-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, combined with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients (pts) with locally advanced, unresected squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(15 Suppl):5505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Abidoye OO, Cohen EE, Wong SJ, Kozloff MF, Nattam SR, Stenson KM, et al. A phase II study of lapatinib (GW572016) in recurrent/metastatic (R/M) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(18 Suppl):5568.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Seiwert TY, Fayette J, Cupissol D, del Campo JM, Clement PM, Hitt R, et al. A randomized, phase II study of afatinib versus cetuximab in metastatic or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck†. Ann Oncol. 2014;25(9):1813–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Abdul Razak AR, Soulières D, Laurie SA, Hotte SJ, Singh S, Winquist E, et al. A phase II trial of dacomitinib, an oral pan-human EGF receptor (HER) inhibitor, as first-line treatment in recurrent and/or metastatic squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck†. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(3):761–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kim HS, Kwon HJ, Jung I, Yun MR, Ahn M-J, Kang BW, et al. Phase II clinical and exploratory biomarker study of dacomitinib in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. Clin Cancer Res. 2015;21(3):544–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kyzas PA, Stefanou D, Batistatou A, Agnantis NJ. Prognostic significance of VEGF immunohistochemical expression and tumor angiogenesis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2005;131(9):624–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Brands RC, Knierim LM, De Donno F, Steinacker V, Hartmann S, Seher A, et al. Targeting VEGFR and FGFR in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in vitro. Oncol Rep. 2017;38(3):1877–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Swiecicki PL, Zhao L, Belile E, Sacco AG, Chepeha DB, Dobrosotskaya I, et al. A phase II study evaluating axitinib in patients with unresectable, recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer. Investig New Drugs. 2015;33(6):1248–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hsu HW, de Necochea-Campion R, Williams V, Duerksen-Hughes PJ, Simental AA Jr, Ferris RL, et al. Linifanib (ABT-869), enhances cytotoxicity with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, veliparib (ABT-888), in head and neck carcinoma cells. Oral Oncol. 2014;50(7):662–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kramer B, Hock C, Birk R, Sauter A, Stuck BA, Hormann K, et al. Targeted therapies in HPV-positive and -negative HNSCC – alteration of EGFR and VEGFR-2 expression in vitro. Anticancer Res. 2016;36(6):2799–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Argiris A, Bauman JE, Ohr J, Gooding WE, Heron DE, Duvvuri U, et al. Phase II randomized trial of radiation therapy, cetuximab, and pemetrexed with or without bevacizumab in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. Ann Oncol. 2016;27(8):1594–600.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fury MG, Xiao H, Sherman EJ, Baxi S, Smith-Marrone S, Schupak K, et al. Phase II trial of bevacizumab + cetuximab + cisplatin with concurrent intensity-modulated radiation therapy for patients with stage III/IVB head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2016;38(Suppl 1):E566–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Argiris A, Karamouzis MV, Gooding WE, Branstetter BF, Zhong S, Raez LE, et al. Phase II trial of pemetrexed and bevacizumab in patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(9):1140–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Williamson SK, Moon J, Huang CH, Guaglianone PP, LeBlanc M, Wolf GT, et al. Phase II evaluation of sorafenib in advanced and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: Southwest Oncology Group Study S0420. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(20):3330–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Elser C, Siu LL, Winquist E, Agulnik M, Pond GR, Chin SF, et al. Phase II trial of sorafenib in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck or nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(24):3766–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Blumenschein GR, Glisson BS, Lu C, Sabichi AL, Ginsberg LE, Bartos CI, et al. Final results of a phase II study of sorafenib in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with metastatic or recurrent squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN). J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(15 Suppl):5592.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Machiels JP, Henry S, Zanetta S, Kaminsky MC, Michoux N, Rommel D, et al. Phase II study of sunitinib in recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: GORTEC 2006-01. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(1):21–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Choong NW, Kozloff M, Taber D, Hu HS, Wade J 3rd, Ivy P, et al. Phase II study of sunitinib malate in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Investig New Drugs. 2010;28(5):677–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Papadimitrakopoulou VA, Frank SJ, Cohen EW, Hirsch FR, Myers JN, Heymach JV, et al. Phase I study of vandetanib with radiation therapy with or without cisplatin in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2016;38(3):439–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sano D, Matsumoto F, Valdecanas DR, Zhao M, Molkentine DP, Takahashi Y, et al. Vandetanib restores head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells’ sensitivity to cisplatin and radiation in vivo and in vitro. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17(7):1815–27.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zibelman M, Mehra R. Overview of current treatment options and investigational targeted therapies for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Am J Clin Oncol. 2016;39(4):396–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chawla A, Adkins D, Worden FP, Rao KA, Hu HS, Price KAR, et al. Effect of the addition of temsirolimus to cetuximab in cetuximab-resistant head and neck cancers: results of the randomized PII MAESTRO study. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(15 Suppl):6089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bauman JE, Arias-Pulido H, Lee SJ, Fekrazad MH, Ozawa H, Fertig E, et al. A phase II study of temsirolimus and erlotinib in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic, platinum-refractory head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 2013;49(5):461–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chung CH, Wang H, Tsottles N, Gourin CG, Agrawal N, Molinolo A, et al. A phase I study of everolimus in combination with cetuximab and cisplatin as first-line therapy in recurrent and metastatic (R/M) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(15 Suppl):e16061.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Adkins D, Oppelt PJ, Ley JC, Trinkaus K, Neupane PC, Sacco AG. Multicenter phase II trial of palbociclib, a selective cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor, and cetuximab in platinum-resistant HPV unrelated (−) recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (RM HNSCC). J Clin Oncol. 2018;36:6008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cohen EEW, Soulieres D, Le Tourneau C, Dinis J, Licitra L, Ahn MJ, et al. Pembrolizumab versus methotrexate, docetaxel, or cetuximab for recurrent or metastatic head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (KEYNOTE-040): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Lancet. 2019;393(10167):156–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ferris RL, Blumenschein G Jr, Fayette J, Guigay J, Colevas AD, Licitra L, et al. Nivolumab for recurrent squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(19):1856–67.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zandberg DP, Algazi AP, Jimeno A, Good JS, Fayette J, Bouganim N, et al. Durvalumab for recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Results from a single-arm, phase II study in patients with >/=25% tumour cell PD-L1 expression who have progressed on platinum-based chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2019;107:142–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shiono S, Kawamura M, Sato T, Okumura S, Nakajima J, Yoshino I, et al. Pulmonary metastasectomy for pulmonary metastases of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;88(3):856–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Liu D, Labow DM, Dang N, Martini N, Bains M, Burt M, et al. Pulmonary metastasectomy for head and neck cancers. Ann Surg Oncol. 1999;6(6):572–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mochizuki T, Okumura S, Ishii G, Ishikawa Y, Hayashi R, Kawabata K, et al. Surgical resection for oral tongue cancer pulmonary metastases. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2010;11(1):56–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lopez-Verdin S, Lavalle-Carrasco J, Carreon-Burciaga RG, Serafin-Higuera N, Molina-Frechero N, Gonzalez-Gonzalez R, et al. Molecular markers of anticancer drug resistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a literature review. Cancers. 2018;10(10):pii: E376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Becker M, Levy D. Modeling the transfer of drug resistance in solid tumors. Bull Math Biol. 2017;79(10):2394–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Quintela-Fandino M, Hitt R, Medina PP, Gamarra S, Manso L, Cortes-Funes H, et al. DNA-repair gene polymorphisms predict favorable clinical outcome among patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck treated with cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(26):4333–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Cutilli T, Leocata P, Dolo V, Altobelli E. Evaluation of p53 protein as a prognostic factor for oral cancer surgery. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;51(8):922–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Blons H, Gad S, Zinzindohoue F, Maniere I, Beauregard J, Tregouet D, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase 3 polymorphism: a predictive factor of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(8):2594–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ansell A, Jedlinski A, Johansson AC, Roberg K. Epidermal growth factor is a potential biomarker for poor cetuximab response in tongue cancer cells. J Oral Pathol Med. 2016;45(1):9–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Roepstorff K, Grandal MV, Henriksen L, Knudsen SL, Lerdrup M, Grovdal L, et al. Differential effects of EGFR ligands on endocytic sorting of the receptor. Traffic. 2009;10(8):1115–27.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Setubal Destro Rodrigues MF, Gammon L, Rahman MM, Biddle A, Nunes FD, Mackenzie IC. Effects of cetuximab and erlotinib on the behaviour of cancer stem cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Oncotarget. 2018;9(17):13488–500.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gemenetzidis E, Gammon L, Biddle A, Emich H, Mackenzie IC. Invasive oral cancer stem cells display resistance to ionising radiation. Oncotarget. 2015;6(41):43964–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arielle Elkrief
    • 1
  • Nicholas Makhoul
    • 2
  • Nathaniel Bouganim
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of OncologyMcGil UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryMcGil UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations