The Gracilis Flap

  • M. Cherubino
  • D. Sallam
  • P. L. Tos


The gracilis is a thin muscle of the thigh. The most common indication for gracilis free flap in head and neck reconstruction is for dynamic mid and lower facial reanimation for long-standing facial paralysis [1, 2].


Free gracilis flap Muscle flap Facial reanimation 


  1. 1.
    Lin CH, Wallace C, Liao CT. Functioning free gracilis myocutaneous flap transfer provides a reliable single-stage facial reconstruction and reanimation following tumor ablation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;128(3):687–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hadlock TA, Malo JS, Cheney ML, Henstrom DK. Free gracilis transfer for smile in children: the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Experience in excursion and quality-of-life changes. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2011;13(3):190–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kropf N, Cordeiro CN, McCarthy CM, Hu QY, Cordeiro PG. The vertically oriented free myocutaneous gracilis flap in head and neck reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg. 2008;61(6):632–6. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Giordano PA, Abbes M, Pequignot JP. Gracilis blood supply: anatomical and clinical re-evaluation. Br J Plast Surg. 1990;43:266–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Harii K, Ohmori K, Sekiguchi J. The free musculocutaneous flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1976;57:294–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yousif NJ, Matloub HS, Kolachalam R, Grunert BK, Sanger JR. The transverse gracilis musculocutaneous flap. Ann Plast Surg. 1992;29:482–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yousif NJ. The transverse gracilis musculocutaneous flap. Ann Plast Surg. 1993;31:382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schoeller T, Huemer GM, Wechberger G. The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap for breast reconstruction: Guidelines for flap and patient selection. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;122:29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pülzl P, Schoeller T, Kleenwein K, Wechselberger G. Donor-site morbidity of the transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap in autologous breast reconstruction: Short-term results. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;128:233e–42e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buntic RF, Horton LM, Brooks D, Althubaiti GA. Transverse upper gracilis flap as an alternative to abdominal tissue breast reconstruction: Technique and modifications. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;128:607e–13e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fattah A, Figus A, Mathur B, Ramakrishnan VV. The transverse myocutaneous gracilis flap: Technical refinements. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2010;63:305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cherubino
    • 1
  • D. Sallam
    • 1
  • P. L. Tos
    • 2
  1. 1.Plastic Surgery DepartmentUniversity of InsubriaVareseItaly
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology for HandASST Gaetano PiniMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations