Black Phosphorous Photodetectors

  • Hui Qiao
  • Chenguang Duan
  • Zongyu Huang
  • Xiang QiEmail author
Part of the Engineering Materials book series (ENG.MAT.)


As a new two-dimensional material, black phosphorus (BP) has a direct band gap that can be controlled with the change of the number of layers, good light absorption rate and excellent electron mobility making it a good application in the field of photodetectors. To date, many studies on BP photodetectors have been reported and have demonstrated excellent photoresponsive performance. Here, we have a comprehensive summary and review of research reports on BP-based photodetectors. We first briefly summarize the structural characteristics, optical and electronic properties of BP. Then BP-based photodetectors are divided into three categories according to the structure of the material and the configuration of the device (BP photodetectors, BP heterojunction photodetectors, photoelectrochemical (PEC)-type BP photodetectors) for summary and description. Finally, the research status of BP-based photodetectors is summarized, and its future development direction is prospected. The content of this chapter can give readers a comprehensive understanding of BP-based photodetectors, and has certain guiding significance for the further development of photodetectors.


Black phosphorus Photodetectors Heterojunction Photoelectrochemical 



This work was supported by the Provincial Natural Science Foundation of Hunan (No. 2016JJ2132), Science and Technology Program of Xiangtan (No. CXY-ZD20172002), and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (IRT_17R91)


  1. 1.
    (a) Xia, F., Mueller, T., Lin, Y.-m., Valdes-Garcia, A., Avouris, P.: Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 839 (2009); (b) Gan, X., Shiue, R.-J., Gao, Y., Meric, I., Heinz, T.F., Shepard, K., Hone, J., Assefa, S., Englund, D.: Nat. Photon. 7, 883 (2013); (c) Lee, Y., Kwon, J., Hwang, E., Ra, C.H., Yoo, W.J., Ahn, J.H., Park, J.H., Cho, J.H.: Adv. Mater. 27, 41 (2015); (d) Wang, B., Zhong, S.P., Zhang, Z.B., Zheng, Z.Q., Zhang, Y.P., Zhang, H.: Appl. Mater. Today 15, 115 (2019); (e) Fan, P., Huang, K.C., Cao, L., Brongersma, M.L.: Nano Lett. 13, 392 (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    (a) Bao, C., Yang, J., Bai, S., Xu, W., Yan, Z., Xu, Q., Liu, J., Zhang, W., Gao, F.: Adv. Mater. 30, 1803422 (2018); (b) Pospischil, A., Humer, M., Furchi, M.M., Bachmann, D., Guider, R., Fromherz, T., Mueller, T., Nat. Photon. 7, 892 (2013); (c) Kharraz, O., Forsyth, D.: Optik-Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 124, 1493 (2013); (d) Arredondo, B., Romero, B., Pena, J., Fernández-Pacheco, A., Alonso, E., Vergaz, R., de Dios, C.: Sensors 13, 12266 (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yang, Q., Liu, Y., Li, Z., Yang, Z., Wang, X., Wang, Z.L.: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 6443 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    (a) LaPierre, R., Robson, M., Azizur-Rahman, K., Kuyanov, P.: J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 123001 (2017); (b) Luxmoore, I.J., Liu, P.Q., Li, P., Faist, J., Nash, G.R.: ACS Photon. 3, 936 (2016); (c) Park, S., Fukuda, K., Wang, M., Lee, C., Yokota, T., Jin, H., Jinno, H., Kimura, H., Zalar, P., Matsuhisa, N.: Adv. Mater. 30, 1802359 (2018)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Son, K.T., Lee, C.C.: IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59, 3005 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    (a) Zhou, J., Chen, L., Wang, Y., He, Y., Pan, X., Xie, E.: Nanoscale 8, 50 (2016); (b) Ahmadi, M., Wu, T., Hu, B.: Adv. Mater. 29, 1605242 (2017); (c) Barve, A.V., Lee, S.J., Noh, S.K., Krishna, S.: Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 738 (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    (a) Xie, C., Mak, C., Tao, X., Yan, F.: Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1603886 (2017); (b) Lopez-Sanchez, O., Lembke, D., Kayci, M., Radenovic, A., Kis, A.: Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 497 (2013); (c) Koppens, F., Mueller, T., Avouris, P., Ferrari, A., Vitiello, M., Polini, M.: Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 780 (2014); (d) Mueller, T., Xia, F., Avouris, P.: Nat. Photon. 4, 297 (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bridgman, P.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 36, 1344 (1914)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    (a) Koenig, S.P., Doganov, R.A., Schmidt, H., Castro Neto, A., Oezyilmaz, B.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 103106 (2014); (b) Tran, V., Soklaski, R., Liang, Y., Yang, L.: Phys. Rev. B 89, 235319 (2014); (c) Castellanos-Gomez, A.: J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 4280 (2015); (d) Deng, B., Tran, V., Xie, Y., Jiang, H., Li, C., Guo, Q., Wang, X., Tian, H., Koester, S.J., Wang, H.: Nat. Commun. 8, 14474 (2017)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    (a) Yuan, H., Liu, X., Afshinmanesh, F., Li, W., Xu, G., Sun, J., Lian, B., Curto, A.G.¸ Ye, G., Hikita, Y.: Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 707 (2015); (b) Xia, F., Wang, H., Jia, Y.: Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li, L., Yu, Y., Ye, G.J., Ge, Q., Ou, X., Wu, H., Feng, D., Chen, X.H., Zhang, Y.: Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 372 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    (a) Island, J.O., Steele, G.A., van der Zant, H.S., Castellanos-Gomez, A.: 2D Mater. 2, 011002 (2015); (b) Wan, B., Yang, B., Wang, Y., Zhang, J., Zeng, Z., Liu, Z., Wang, W.: Nanotechnology 26, 435702 (2015); (c) Xing, C., Jing, G., Liang, X., Qiu, M., Li, Z., Cao, R., Li, X., Fan, D., Zhang, H.: Nanoscale 9, 8096 (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhao, Y., Wang, H., Huang, H., Xiao, Q., Xu, Y., Guo, Z., Xie, H., Shao, J., Sun, Z., Han, W.: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 55, 5003 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Illarionov, Y.Y., Waltl, M., Rzepa, G., Kim, J.-S., Kim, S., Dodabalapur, A., Akinwande, D., Grasser, T.: ACS Nano 10, 9543 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shao, J., Xie, H., Huang, H., Li, Z., Sun, Z., Xu, Y., Xiao, Q., Yu, X.-F., Zhao, Y., Zhang, H.: Nat. Commun. 7, 12967 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kang, J., Wood, J.D., Wells, S.A., Lee, J.-H., Liu, X., Chen, K.-S., Hersam, M.C.: ACS Nano 9, 3596 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xu, Y., Wang, Z., Guo, Z., Huang, H., Xiao, Q., Zhang, H., Yu, X.F.: Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    (a) Zou, J., Zhang, Q., Huang, K., Marzari, N.: J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 10725 (2010); (b) Xie, Y., Wei, L., Li, Q., Chen, Y., Yan, S., Jiao, J., Liu, G., Mei, L.: Nanotechnology 25, 075202 (2014); (c) Ellis, J.K., Lucero, M.J., Scuseria, G.E.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261908 (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    (a) Zhang, M., Wu, Q., Zhang, F., Chen, L., Jin, X., Hu, Y., Zheng, Z., Zhang, H.: Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800224 (2019); (b) Low, T., Rodin, A., Carvalho, A., Jiang, Y., Wang, H., Xia, F., Neto, A.C.: Phys. Rev. B 90, 075434 (2014)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    (a) Qiao, J., Kong, X., Hu, Z.-X., Yang, F., Ji, W.: Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014); (b) Fei, R., Yang, L.: Nano Lett. 14, 2884 (2014); (c) Low, T., Engel, M., Steiner, M., Avouris, P.: Physical Review B 90, 081408 (2014)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    (a) Long, M., Gao, A., Wang, P., Xia, H., Ott, C., Pan, C., Fu, Y., Liu, E., Chen, X., Lu, W.: Sci. Adv. 3, e1700589 (2017); (b) Chen, X., Lu, X., Deng, B., Sinai, O., Shao, Y., Li, C., Yuan, S., Tran, V., Watanabe, K., Taniguchi, T.: Nat. Commun. 8, 1672 (2017)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Engel, M., Steiner, M., Avouris, P.: Nano Lett. 14, 6414 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Guo, Q., Pospischil, A., Bhuiyan, M., Jiang, H., Tian, H., Farmer, D., Deng, B., Li, C., Han, S.-J., Wang, H.: Nano Lett. 16, 4648 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wu, J., Koon, G.K.W., Xiang, D., Han, C., Toh, C.T., Kulkarni, E.S., Verzhbitskiy, I., Carvalho, A., Rodin, A.S., Koenig, S.P.: ACS Nano 9, 8070 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Youngblood, N., Chen, C., Koester, S.J., Li, M.: Nat. Photon. 9, 247 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Huang, M., Wang, M., Chen, C., Ma, Z., Li, X., Han, J., Wu, Y.: Adv. Mater. 28, 3481 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    (a) Favron, A., Gaufrès, E., Fossard, F., Phaneuf-L’Heureux, A.-L., Tang, N.Y., Lévesque, P.L., Loiseau, A., Leonelli, R., Francoeur, S., Martel, R.: Nat. Mater. 14, 826 (2015); (b) Doganov, R.A., O’Farrell, E.C., Koenig, S.P., Yeo, Y., Ziletti, A., Carvalho, A., Campbell, D.K., Coker, D.F., Watanabe, K., Taniguchi, T.: Nat. Commun. 6, 6647 (2015); (c) Kim, J.-S., Liu, Y., Zhu, W., Kim, S., Wu, D., Tao, L., Dodabalapur, A., Lai, K., Akinwande, D.: Sci. Rep. 5, 8989 (2015)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wood, J.D., Wells, S.A., Jariwala, D., Chen, K.-S., Cho, E., Sangwan, V.K., Liu, X., Lauhon, L.J., Marks, T.J., Hersam, M.C.: Nano Lett. 14, 6964 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Na, J., Park, K., Kim, J.T., Choi, W.K., Song, Y.-W.: Nanotechnology 28, 085201 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Miao, J., Zhang, S., Cai, L., Wang, C.: Adv. Electron. Mater. 2, 1500346 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    (a) Ling, Z.-P., Sakar, S., Mathew, S., Zhu, J.-T., Gopinadhan, K., Venkatesan, T., Ang, K.-W.: Sci. Rep. 5, 18000 (2015); (b) Quhe, R., Peng, X., Pan, Y., Ye, M., Wang, Y., Zhang, H., Feng, S., Zhang, Q., Shi, J., Yang, J.: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 3959 (2017)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Deng, Y., Luo, Z., Conrad, N.J., Liu, H., Gong, Y., Najmaei, S., Ajayan, P.M., Lou, J., Xu, X., Ye, P.D.: ACS Nano 8, 8292 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ye, L., Li, H., Chen, Z., Xu, J.: Acs Photon. 3, 692 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ye, L., Wang, P., Luo, W., Gong, F., Liao, L., Liu, T., Tong, L., Zang, J., Xu, J., Hu, W.: Nano Energy 37, 53 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cao, R., Wang, H.D., Guo, Z.N., Sang, D.K., Zhang, L.Y., Xiao, Q.L., Zhang, Y.P., Fan, D.Y., Li, J.Q., Zhang, H.: Adv. Opt. Mater. 1900020 (2019)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liu, Y., Shivananju, B.N., Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., Yu, W., Xiao, S., Sun, T., Ma, W., Mu, H., Lin, S.: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 36137 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhao, S., Wu, J., Jin, K., Ding, H., Li, T., Wu, C., Pan, N., Wang, X.: Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1802011 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bullock, J., Amani, M., Cho, J., Chen, Y.-Z., Ahn, G.H., Adinolfi, V., Shrestha, V.R., Gao, Y., Crozier, K.B., Chueh, Y.-L.: Nat. Photon. 12, 601 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liu, Y., Cai, Y., Zhang, G., Zhang, Y.W., Ang, K.W.: Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1604638 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jia, J., Xu, J., Park, J.-H., Lee, B.H., Hwang, E., Lee, S.: Chem. Mater. 29, 3143 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang, L., Huang, L., Tan, W.C., Feng, X., Chen, L., Ang, K.-W.: Nanoscale 10, 14359 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gehring, P., Urcuyo, R., Duong, D.L., Burghard, M., Kern, K.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 233110 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Xu, Y., Yuan, J., Fei, L., Wang, X., Bao, Q., Wang, Y., Zhang, K., Zhang, Y.: Small 12, 5000 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Guo, Z., Chen, S., Wang, Z., Yang, Z., Liu, F., Xu, Y., Wang, J., Yi, Y., Zhang, H., Liao, L.: Adv. Mater. 29, 1703811 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    (a) Huang, Z., Han, W., Tang, H., Ren, L., Chander, D.S., Qi, X., Zhang, H.: 2D Mater. 2, 035011 (2015); (b) Li, X., Gao, C., Duan, H., Lu, B., Pan, X., Xie, E., Nano Energy 1, 640 (2012)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Li, Z., Qiao, H., Guo, Z., Ren, X., Huang, Z., Qi, X., Dhanabalan, S.C., Ponraj, J.S., Zhang, D., Li, J.: Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1705237 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Li, X., Gao, C., Duan, H., Lu, B., Wang, Y., Chen, L., Zhang, Z., Pan, X., Xie, E.: Small 2013, 9 (2005)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Majumder, T., Hmar, J., Debnath, K., Gogurla, N., Roy, J., Ray, S., Mondal, S.: J. Appl. Phys. 116, 034311 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Huang, W., Xing, C., Wang, Y., Li, Z., Wu, L., Ma, D., Dai, X., Xiang, Y., Li, J., Fan, D.: Nanoscale 10, 2404 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Huang, H., Ren, X., Li, Z., Wang, H., Huang, Z., Qiao, H., Tang, P., Zhao, J., Liang, W., Ge, Y.: Nanotechnology 29, 235201 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ren, X., Li, Z., Huang, Z., Sang, D., Qiao, H., Qi, X., Li, J., Zhong, J., Zhang, H.: Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1606834 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Guo, Z., Zhang, H., Lu, S., Wang, Z., Tang, S., Shao, J., Sun, Z., Xie, H., Wang, H., Yu, X.F.: Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hui Qiao
    • 1
  • Chenguang Duan
    • 1
  • Zongyu Huang
    • 1
  • Xiang Qi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology, School of Physics and OptoelectronicXiangtan UniversityHunanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations