Black Phosphorous Based Nanodevices

  • J. Ashtami
  • S. S. Athira
  • V. G. Reshma
  • P. V. MohananEmail author
Part of the Engineering Materials book series (ENG.MAT.)


Black phosphorus (BP) has come into sight as a hopeful two dimensional (2D) material from its time of invention in 2014 through flourishing exfoliation method. Devices possessing nonspecific properties in at least one dimension are generally considered as nanodevices. The far reaching attention on BP based nanodevices came from its unique structural, compositional and functional features. Researchers have focused on 2D structures of BP because of the electron distribution and wide band gap peculiarities. On an overall point view, the material is considered to be apt for a plethora of medical as well as non-medical application scenarios. Nevertheless, its applicability is getting hindered by certain characteristic drawbacks. For the reason that BP is relatively unstable in air and aqueous environment, several functionalization strategies have been adopted in recent years. This chapter addresses mainly the different types of BP based nanodevices, its non-medical and medical applications, safety aspects of the material along with assured challenges it possess in application scenarios. The section lends a hand to the readers to grab information on fascinating potentials of BP nanodevices in various applications.


Black phosphorous Nanodevices Biomedical Drug delivery Imaging 



The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to Director and Head, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram for their encouragement and support for conducting this study. Ashtami thanks SCTIMST, Trivandrum, Athira thanks CSIR, New Delhi and Reshma thanks DST (Inspire fellowship), New Delhi for financial support of Junior Research Fellowships.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

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Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Ashtami
    • 1
  • S. S. Athira
    • 1
  • V. G. Reshma
    • 1
  • P. V. Mohanan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Toxicology Division, Biomedical Technology WingSree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and TechnologyThiruvananthapuramIndia

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