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Utility of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium for an In Vitro Model of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

  • Whitney A. Greene
  • Ramesh R. Kaini
  • Heuy-Ching WangEmail author
Chapter
  • 543 Downloads
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1186)

Abstract

The advent of stem cell technology, including the technology to induce pluripotency in somatic cells, and direct differentiation of stem cells into specific somatic cell types, has created an exciting new field of scientific research. Much of the work with pluripotent stem (PS) cells has been focused on the exploration and exploitation of their potential as cells/tissue replacement therapies for personalized medicine. However, PS and stem cell-derived somatic cells are also proving to be valuable tools to study disease pathology and tissue-specific responses to injury. High-throughput drug screening assays using tissue-specific injury models have the potential to identify specific and effective treatments that will promote wound healing. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-RPE) are well characterized cells that exhibit the phenotype and functions of in vivo RPE. In addition to their role as a source of cells to replace damaged or diseased RPE, iPS-RPE provide a robust platform for in vitro drug screening to identify novel therapeutics to promote healing and repair of ocular tissues after injury. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is an abnormal wound healing process that occurs after retinal tears or detachments. In this chapter, the role of iPS-RPE in the development of an in vitro model of PVR is described. Comprehensive analyses of the iPS-RPE response to injury suggests that these cells provide a physiologically relevant tool to investigate the cellular mechanisms of the three phases of PVR pathology: migration, proliferation, and contraction. This in vitro model will provide valuable information regarding cellular wound healing responses specific to RPE and enable the identification of effective therapeutics.

Keywords

Pluripotent stem cells Induced pluripotent stem cells Retinal pigment epithelium Retinal pigment epithelium derived from induced pluripotent stem cells Proliferative vitreoretinopathy Wound healing 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Whitney A. Greene
    • 1
  • Ramesh R. Kaini
    • 1
  • Heuy-Ching Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Ocular Trauma Task Area, US Army Institute of Surgical ResearchJBSA Fort Sam HoustonHoustonUSA

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