Advertisement

Minor Heat Illnesses

  • Gabrielle E. W. GierschEmail author
  • Luke N. Belval
  • Rebecca M. Lopez
Chapter

Abstract

A large number of medical conditions fall under the umbrella term of “heat illnesses.” While these conditions span across a spectrum relative to severity, these heat illnesses are in fact independent medical conditions. More severe conditions are discussed in more detail in other chapters within this text. The goal of this chapter is to highlight the pathophysiology, recognition, treatment, and return to activity of several minor conditions that result from heat exposure. These conditions may contribute to the risk for developing more severe heat illnesses, making the understanding of these minor heat illnesses and prevention important. Preventing minor heat illnesses can reduce the risk of developing more severe exertional heat illnesses and can enhance safety and performance during exercise and physical activity in the heat.

Keywords

Heat syncope Sunburn Miliaria rubra Heat edema Pathophysiology Return to activity 

References

  1. 1.
    Miners AL. The diagnosis and emergency care of heat related illness and sunburn in athletes: a retrospective case series. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2010;54(2):107–17.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lipman GS, Eifling KP, Ellis MA, Gaudio FG, Otten EM, Grissom CK, et al. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness. Wilderness Environ Med. 2013;24(4):351–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Charkoudian N. Skin blood flow in adult human thermoregulation: how it works, when it does not, and why. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78(5):603–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yarbrough BE, Hubbard RW. Heat-related illnesses. In: Auerbach PS, Geehr EC, editors. Management of wilderness and environmental emergencies. St. Louis: Mosby; 1989. p. 119–43.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Horne GO, Mole RH. Mammillaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1951;44(4):465–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bailes BK, Reeve K. Prevention of heat-related illness. J Nurse Pract. 2007;3(3):161–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Casa DJ, DeMartini JK, Bergeron MF, Csillan D, Eichner ER, Lopez RM, et al. National athletic trainers’ association position statement: exertional heat illnesses. J Athl Train. 2015;50(9):986–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pryor JL, Johnson EC, Roberts WO, Pryor RR. Application of evidence-based recommendations for heat acclimation: individual and team sport perspectives. Temperature. 2018;6(1):37–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guy JH, Deakin GB, Edwards AM, Miller CM, Pyne DB. Adaptation to hot environmental conditions: an exploration of the performance basis, procedures and future directions to optimise opportunities for elite athletes. Sports Med. 2015;45(3):303–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Armstrong LE. Exertional heat illnesses. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2003.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Piil JF, Mikkelsen CJ, Junge N, Morris NB, Nybo L. Heat acclimation does not protect trained males from hyperthermia-induced impairments in complex task performance. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(5):716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Piil JF, Lundbye-Jensen J, Trangmar SJ, Nybo L. Performance in complex motor tasks deteriorates in hyperthermic humans. Temperature (Austin). 2017;4(4):420–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Allen SD, O’Brien JP. Tropical anidrotic asthenia: a preliminary report. Med J Aust. 1944;2:335–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    O’Brien JP. The etiology of poral closure; an experimental study of miliaria rubra, bullous impetigo and related diseases of the skin. I. an historical review of the causation of miliaria. J Invest Dermatol. 1950;15(2):95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shelley WB, Horvath PN. Experimental miliaria in man. J Invest Dermatol. 1950;14(3):193–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bannister R. Acute anhidrotic heat exhaustion. Lancet. 1959;2(7098):313–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Seto CK, Way D, O’Connor N. Environmental illness in athletes. Clin Sports Med. 2005;24(3):695–718. xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Coris EE, Ramirez AM, Durme DJ. Heat illness in athletes: the dangerous combination of heat, humidity and exercise. Sports Med. 2004;34(1):9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ou-Yang H, Meyer K, Houser T, Grove G. Sunscreen formulations do not interfere with sweat cooling during exercise. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2018;40(1):87–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wells TD, Jessup GT, Langlotz KS. Effects of sunscreen use during exercise in the heat. Phys Sports Med. 1984;12(6):132–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yamamoto T, Fujita M, Oda Y, Todani M, Hifumi T, Kondo Y, et al. Evaluation of a novel classification of heat-related illnesses: a multicentre observational study (Heat Stroke STUDY 2012). Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(9):1962.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kenny GP, Wilson TE, Flouris AD, Fujii N. Heat exhaustion. Handb Clin Neurol. 2018;157:505–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Asplund CA, O’Connor FG, Noakes TD. Exercise-associated collapse: an evidence-based review and primer for clinicians. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(14):1157–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schlader ZJ, Wilson TE, Crandall CG. Mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance during heat stress. Auton Neurosci. 2016;196:37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Crandall CG, Shibasaki M, Wilson TE. Insufficient cutaneous vasoconstriction leading up to and during syncopal symptoms in the heat stressed human. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;299(4):H1168–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wilson TE, Cui J, Zhang R, Crandall CG. Heat stress reduces cerebral blood velocity and markedly impairs orthostatic tolerance in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291(5):R1443–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Carter R 3rd, Cheuvront SN, Vernieuw CR, Sawka MN. Hypohydration and prior heat stress exacerbates decreases in cerebral blood flow velocity during standing. J Appl Physiol. 2006;101(6):1744–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabrielle E. W. Giersch
    • 1
    Email author
  • Luke N. Belval
    • 1
  • Rebecca M. Lopez
    • 2
  1. 1.Korey Stringer Institute, Department of Kinesiology, University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  2. 2.Athletic Training Post-Professional Program, Department of Orthopaedics & Sports Medicine, University of South FloridaTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations