Surgery for Stage IV Melanoma



Although metastatic melanoma was historically associated with poor response to systemic therapy, limited surgical options, and an overall grim prognosis, advances over the past decade have resulted in a dramatic shift in the availability and effectiveness of treatments for these patients. In particular, the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapy has offered many melanoma patients with advanced disease a chance for improved survival and even, in some cases, cure. Importantly, these improvements in systemic therapy have created more potential candidates for surgery at more advanced stages, both for palliative and curative intent. However, given the complex considerations for patients with stage IV melanoma, a multi-disciplinary approach and appropriate patient selection for metastasectomy is critical in order to provide these patients with optimal outcomes.


Metastatic melanoma Consolidation surgery Palliative surgery Metastasectomy 


Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no financial conflicts of interest relevant to this work.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Surgical Oncology, Department of SurgeryYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of SurgeryOregon Health & Science UniversityPortlandUSA

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