Advertisement

Introduction

Chapter
  • 134 Downloads
Part of the The International Library of Bioethics book series (ILB)

Abstract

Many years ago I had a common cold with exceptional tiredness and occasional irregular pulse. This led me to consult a doctor, who turned out to be my former student. After a careful clinical examination and studying the electrocardiogram (ECG) the doctor explained that the results were normal and there were only a few benign extrasystoles seen in the ECG. Suddenly, the tiredness went away and I felt well again (Puustinen and Louhiala 2013).

References

  1. AMA (American Medical Association). Use in clinical practice. https://www.ama-assn.org/delivering-care/use-placebo-clinical-practice. Accessed 1 Jun 2018.
  2. Amanzio, M., A. Pollo, G. Maggi, and F. Benedetti. 2001. Response variability to analgesics: A role for non-specific activation of endogenous opioids. Pain 90: 205–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Marketing Association Dictionary. 1995. https://www.ama.org/resources/Pages/Dictionary.aspx?dLetter=B. Accessed 1 Jun 2018.
  4. Barrett, B., D. Muller, D. Rakel, D. Rabago, L. Marchand, and J.C. Scheder. 2006. Placebo, meaning and health. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49: 178–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beecher, H.K. 1955. The powerful placebo. JAMA 159: 1602–1606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benedetti, F. 2013. Placebo and the new physiology of the doctor-patient relationship. Physiological Reviews 93: 1207–1246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benedetti, F., E. Carlino, and A. Pollo. 2011. How placebos change the patient’s brain. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews 36: 339–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benedetti, F., D. Barbiani, and E. Camerone. 2018. Critical life functions: Can placebo replace oxygen? International Review of Neurobiology 138: 201–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blease, C. 2018. Consensus in placebo studies—Lessons from the philosophy of science. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 61: 412–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Branthwaite, A., and P. Cooper. 1981. Analgesic effects of branding in treatment of headaches. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed) 282: 1576–1578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brewer, C. 2012. The golden age of placebo. BMJ 344: e3016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, W.A. 1998. The placebo effect. Scientific American 278 (1): 90–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Canetti, Elias. 2011. The tongue set free. Croydon: Granta Books.Google Scholar
  14. Chaput de Saintonge, D.M., and A. Herxheimer. 1994. Harnessing placebo effects in health care. Lancet 344: 995–998.Google Scholar
  15. Chekhov, A. 1990. The princess and other stories, trans. and ed. Ronald Hingley, 179–188. Aylesbury: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Furukawa, T.A., A. Cipriani, L.Z. Atkinson, S. Leucht, Y. Ogawa, L. Takeshima, et al. 2016. Placebo response rates in antidepressant trials: A systematic review of published and unpublished double-blind randomised controlled studies. Lancet Psychiatry 3: 1059–1066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gold, A., and P. Lichtenberg. 2014. The moral case for the clinical placebo. Journal of Medical Ethics 40: 219–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldacre, B. 2011. Bad science. London: Fourth Estate.Google Scholar
  19. Golomb, B.A. 2011. The Dece(i)bo Effect. The Edge 2011. https://www.edge.org/response-detail/11708. Accessed 1 Jun 2018.
  20. Gracely, R.H., R. Dubner, W.D. Deeter, and P.J. Wolskee. 1985. Clinicians’ expectations influence placebo analgesia. Lancet 325: 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grünbaum, A. 1986. The placebo concept in medicine and psychiatry. Psychological Medicine 16 (1): 19–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hitchens, C. 2003. Empire falls—How master and commander gets Patrick O’Brian wrong. Slate. November 14, Accessed 1 Jun 2018.Google Scholar
  23. Hróbjartsson, A. 2002. What are the main methodological problems in the estimation of placebo effects? Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 55 (5): 430–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hróbjartsson, A. 2008. Clinical placebo interventions are unethical, unnecessary and unprofessional. Journal of Clinical Ethics 19: 66–69.Google Scholar
  25. Hróbjartsson, A., and P.C. Gøtzsche. 2001. Is the placebo powerless? an analysis of clinical trials comparing placebo with no treatment. New England Journal of Medicine 344: 1594–1602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hróbjartsson, A., and M. Norup. 2003. The use of placebo interventions in medical practice: A national questionnaire survey of Danish clinicians. Evaluation and the Health Professions 26: 153–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kaptchuk, T. Interview in 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2rt7WIK2OVE. Accessed 1 Jun 2018.
  28. Kaptchuk T.J.F.E., J.M. Kelley, M.N. Sanchez, E. Kokkotou, J.P. Singer, M. Kowalczykowski, et al. 2010. Placebos without deception: A randomized controlled trial in irritable bowel syndrome. PLoS One 5: e15591.Google Scholar
  29. Levine, J.D., N.C. Gordon, and H.L. Fields. 1978. The mechanism of placebo analgesia. Lancet 2: 654–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lewis, S. 1925. Arrowsmith. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World Inc.Google Scholar
  31. Lichtenberg, P., U. Heresco-Levy, and U. Nitzan. 2004. The ethics of the placebo in clinical practice. Journal of Medical Ethics 30: 551–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Louhiala, P., and R. Puustinen. 2013. Placebo effect or care effect? four examples from the literary world. Hektoen International, vol. 5, issue 4. http://hekint.org/2017/03/03/placebo-effect-or-care-effect-four-examples-from-the-literary-world/?highlight=louhiala. Accessed 1 Jun 2018.
  33. Louhiala, Pekka. 2012. What do we really know about the deliberate use of placebos in clinical practice? Journal of Medical Ethics 38: 403–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Marshall, M.F. 2004. The placebo effect in popular culture. Science and Engineering Ethics 10: 37–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Moerman, D. 2002. Meaning, Medicine and the ‘Placebo Effect’. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moerman, D. 2013. Against the “placebo effect”: A personal point of view. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 21: 125–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nayernouri, T. 2017. Homeopathy, ritual and magic. Archives of Iranian Medicine 20: 718–722.Google Scholar
  38. O’Brian, P. 1998. The hundred days. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  39. Park, L.C., and U. Covi. 1965. Nonblind placebo trial: An exploration of neurotic patients’responses to placebo when its inert content is disclosed. Archives of General Psychiatry 12: 36–45.Google Scholar
  40. Petrovic, P., E. Kalso, K.M. Petersson, and M. Ingvar. 2002. Placebo and opioid analgesia—Imaging a shared neuronal network. Science 295: 1737–1740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Phillips, D.P., T.E. Ruth, and L.M. Wagner. 1993. Psychology and survival. Lancet 342: 1142–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Plato. 1980. The collected dialogues of plato. In Charmides, ed. Hamilton E, Cairns H. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Puustinen, R., and P. Louhiala. 2013. The paradox of placebo—Real and sham in medicine. In The medical humanities companion volume three: Treatment, ed. P. Louhiala, I. Heath, and J. Saunders. Oxford: Radcliffe.Google Scholar
  44. Reeves, R.R., M.E. Ladner, R.H. Hart, and R.S. Burke. 2007. Nocebo effects with antidepressant clinical drug trial placebos. General Hospital Psychiatry 29: 275–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rowling, J.K. 2005. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  46. Saloheimo, P. 2012. Medical classics: The Egyptian. BMJ 345: e4712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shapiro, A.K., and E. Shapiro. 1997. The powerful placebo—From ancient priest to modern physician. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  48. St. Augustine. 1838. Confessions. Oxford: Parker and Rivington.Google Scholar
  49. Tolstoy, Leo. 2001. War and peace, trans. and ed. Louise and Aylmer, Maude. London: Wordsworth 1. Classics.Google Scholar
  50. Vogt, H., E. Ulvestad, T.E. Eriksen, and L. Getz. 2014. Getting personal: Can systems medicine integrate scientific and humanistic conceptions of the patient? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20: 942–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Waltari, M. 1983. The Egyptian. Porvoo: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.University of TampereTampereFinland

Personalised recommendations