Reputation Management of Russian Companies in the European Union in the Context of Russia and the EU’s Strategic Communication

  • Darya BazarkinaEmail author
  • Kaleria Kramar


The chapter analyzes the reputation management of big Russian enterprises presented in the markets of the European Union (EU) member states. Central to the analysis of Russian business practices is the experience of raw energy companies, as raw materials currently account for the largest share of Russian exports. The Russian oil and gas giants, due to their privileged position, do not ensure their reputation as carefully as non-commodity companies (the experience of the latter is studied on the example of Sberbank). For the last years, the intangible assets of many Russian companies have fallen significantly. We try to prove that not only the internal problems of Russian companies, their reputation management mistakes, but also the intensification of psychological warfare in the EU media space plays some role in that.


Reputation management Business interests Gazprom Lukoil Sberbank 


  1. AgainstGasLand on YouTube (2013) Strashnye posledstvija dobychi slancevogo gaza (Terrible Consequences of Shale Gas Production). YouTube. 12 Feb. Accessed 30 Apr 2019
  2. Albert E (2016) Le gaz de schiste américain débarque en Europe (American shale gas lands in Europe). Le Monde. 25 Mar. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  3. Amadeo K (2019) US debt to China, how much it is, reasons why, and what if China sells. Why China is America’s biggest banker. The Balance. 9 Apr. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  4. Aris B (2018) Sberbank becomes the second most valuable bank in Europe. BNE Intellinews. 28 Feb. Accessed 2 Feb 2019
  5. Associated Press (2018) US lawsuit: Venezuela cheated of billions by rigged oil bids. Daily Mail. 9 Mar. Accessed 5 Feb 2019
  6. Association of Accredited Public Policy Advocates to the European Union (2017) AALEP official website. Accessed 15 Feb 2019
  7. Badenhausen K (2018) The world’s most valuable brands 2018: by the numbers. Forbes. 23 May. Accessed 28 May 2019
  8. Barsukov U (2019a) Gazoobraznye obeshchaniya (Gaseous promises). Kommersant. 25 Mar. Accessed 14 April 2019
  9. Barsukov U (2019b) Severnyj potok 2 zatyanulo v datskie vody (Nord Stream 2 is pulled into Danish waters). Kommersant. 15 Apr. Accessed 15 April 2019
  10. Bazarkina DY (2017) Rol’ kommunikacionnogo obespechenija v antiterroristicheskoj dejatel’nosti Evropejskogo Sojuza (The role of the communication provision in the EU antiterrorist activity). DSc Thesis, Institute of Europe, Russian Academy of Sciences (IERAS), MoscowGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker J, Mayer SL (2015) Russian groups crowdfund the war in Ukraine. New York Times. 11 Jun. Accessed 2 Feb 2019
  12. Belyi A (2014) Russian oil and gas in the new international context – sanctions produce effect, political consequences are still uncertain. Academia. Accessed 2 Feb 2019
  13. Bivol (2018) #GPGATE: Consultancy companies involved in grand corruption with EU funds and public procurement. Accessed 8 Feb 2019
  14. Brand Finance (2018) Global 500. The annual report on the world’s most valuable brands. Accessed 1 Feb 2019
  15. Brand Finance (2019a) Global 500. The annual report on the world’s most valuable brands. Accessed 1 Feb 2019
  16. Brand Finance (2019b) Banking 500. The annual report on the most valuable and strongest banking brands. Accessed 1 Feb 2019
  17. Cadwalladr C (2018) Arron Banks, Brexit and the Russia connection. The Guardian. 16 Jun. Accessed 2 Feb 2019
  18. Caesar E (2016) Deutsche Bank’s $10-billion scandal. New Yorker. 29 Jun. Accessed 12 Feb 2019
  19. Cameron R (2018) Prague: The city watching out for Russian and Chinese spies. BBC News. 23 Dec. Accessed 8 Feb 2019
  20. Campbell J, Baer R (2018) If we want to stop Putin, we need to go after his sources of money. CNN. 29 Mar. Accessed 8 Feb 2019
  21. Carroll CE (2016) The SAGE encyclopedia of corporate reputation. Sage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Chan TJ, Sathasevam T, Noor PNM, Khiruddin AM, Hasan NAM (2018) Application of selected facets of RepTrak Reputation Model on Carlsberg Malaysia as one of the companies in tobacco, gambling, alcohol and pornography (TGAP) Industry. International J of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 8(1):203–217.
  23. Chatterji AK, Toffel MW (2018) The new CEO activists. J Harvard Business Review (Jan–Feb):78–89Google Scholar
  24. Chernyshev Е (2014) Slancevaya podopleka agressii protiv Donbassa (Shale background of aggression against the Donbas). Nakanune. 20 May. Accessed 12 Apr 2019
  25. Chervonnaya A (2019) Gazprom priznal SPG svoim osnovnym konkurentom (Gazprom Recognized LNG as Its Main Competitor). Vedomosti. 22 Mar. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  26. Council of the EU (2019) Press Release. Council adopts gas directive amendment: EU rules extended to pipelines to and from third countries. Council of the EU. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  27. Cull NJ (2017) Soft power’s next steppe: National projection at the Astana EXPO 2017. J Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 13(4):269–272.
  28. Delloitte (2013) Why Reputational Risk Is a Strategic Risk. The Wall Street Journal. 2 Oct. Accessed 7 April 2019
  29. Demchenko N, Litova E (2019) Gref priznal poterju milliardov rublej iz-za iskusstvennogo intellekta (Gref admitted the loss of billions of rubles due to artificial intelligence). RBC. 26 Feb. Accessed 3 March 2019
  30. Diamant J, Gardner S (2018) Views of national identity differ less by age in Central, Eastern Europe than in Western Europe. Pew Research Center. 4 Dec. Accessed 22 Feb 2019
  31. Efanova E, Glazkov A (2016) Obraz Rossii v sisteme mezhdunarodnyh otnoshenij: soderzhanie imidzhevoj strategii (The image of Russia in the system of international relations: the content of image strategy). J Russian Political Science 21(1):15–24Google Scholar
  32. EIN Presswire (2016) First Gazprom Neft G-Energy service station opens in Hungary. 21 Jul. Accessed 13 Feb 2019
  33. Eremina A, Kantyshev P (2017) Rumyny snyali slivki s kart (Romanians took the cream off the cards). Vedomosti. 20 Mar. Accessed 2 Feb 2019
  34. European Commission (2016a) Speech by Vice-President Maroš Šefčovič on “Nord Stream II – Energy Union at the crossroads”. European Commission. 6 Apr. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  35. European Commission (2016b) The EU explained: trade. European Commission Directorate-General for Communication Citizens’ Information, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  36. European Commission (2016c) The EU explained: consumers. European Commission Directorate-General for Communication Citizens’ Information, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  37. European Commission (2018) EU energy in figures. Statistical pocketbook 2018. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  38. European Parliament (2018) Seven economic challenges for Russia. European Parliament. Accessed 12 Feb 2019
  39. European Parliament (2019) Press Release. Russia can no longer be considered a ‘strategic partner’, say MEPs. European Parliament. 12 Mar. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  40. European Union (2019a) Goals and values of the EU. EU website. Accessed 3 March 2019
  41. European Union (2019b) Corporate social responsibility (CSR). EU website. Accessed 3 Mar 2019
  42. Fadeeva A (2015) Lukojl ne sobiraetsya uhodit’ iz Rumynii (Lukoil is not going to leave Romania). Vedomosti. 15 Jul. Accessed 7 Feb 2019
  43. Fakty.UA (2017) Evrokomissija ne smogla poluchit’ mandat na peregovory s Rossiej po “Severnomu potoku-2” (The European Commission was Unable to Obtain a Mandate to Negotiate with Russia on the Nord Stream 2). Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  44. Falkenreck C (2010) Reputation transfer to enter new B-to-B markets. Measuring and modelling approaches. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  45. Federal Government of Germany (2018). Artificial intelligence strategy. Accessed 3 Mar 2019
  46. Ferrell OC (2017) Broadening marketing’s contribution to data privacy. J of the Academy of Marketing Science 45(2):160–163.
  47. Forbes (2019) The world’s most valuable brands. 2019 Ranking. Accessed 28 May 2019
  48. Forrest B (2014) Putin’s run for gold. Vanity Fair. 23 Jan. Accessed 10 Feb 2019
  49. Front News International (2017) In Austria scandal erupts around the participation of OMV in the project “North Stream 2”. Accessed 11 Feb 2019
  50. Gazprom (2016) The passport of the program of innovative development of JSC Gazprom until 2025. Accessed 20 Feb 2019
  51. Gazprom (2017) Annual report of PJSC Gazprom for 2017. Accessed 8 Feb 2019
  52. Gazprom Export (2019) Delivery statistics. Gas supplies to Europe. Accessed 3 Mar 2019
  53. Gazprom Marketing & Trading (2019) Equality, diversity and inclusion. Accessed 15 Feb 2019
  54. Gazprom Neft (2016) Sustainable development report Accessed 12 Mar 2019
  55. Gazprom Neft (2017) Annual report 2017. Accessed 8 Feb 2019
  56. Glassdoor (2019) Lukoil. Accessed 25 Feb 2019
  57. Gordejchik Е (2016) Zachem Emerstone dobyvat slancevyj gaz v Ukraine (Why does Emerstone produce shale gas in Ukraine). UA Energy. 16 Aug. Accessed 12 Apr 2019
  58. Green Alliance (2013) 13 oktjabrja sostoitsja pervyj massovyj miting protiv opasnyh slancevyh razrabotok v Ukraine (October 13 will be the first mass rally against dangerous shale development in Ukraine). In: Green Alliance. Accessed 30 Apr 2019
  59. Green J (2019) How to understand business capitalization. Small business – Accessed 28 May 2019. Accessed 28 May 2019
  60. Greenpeace (2012) Position statement on shale gas, shale oil, coal bed methane and ‘fracking’. Greenpeace. 24 Apr. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  61. Griffin A (2008) New strategies for reputation management: gaining control of issues, crises and corporate social responsibility. Kogan Page, LondonGoogle Scholar
  62. Guckov А (2017) Sberbank ujdet iz ryada evropejskih stran (Sberbank will leave a number of European countries). TV Center. 22 Sep. Accessed 3 Feb 2019
  63. Gudkov A (2012) Slancevyj gaz ne sogreet Evropu (Shale gas will not warm Europe). Kommersant. 18 Jan. Accessed 11 Apr 2019
  64. Gulf Times (2018) Sberbank is a big step closer to ending its overseas expansion. 22 May. Accessed 8 Feb 2019
  65. Hauer-Tyukarkina O (2015) Sovremennaya imidzhevaya politika Evropeyskogo Soyuza (Contemporary image policy of the European Union). Goryachaya Linia – Telekom, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  66. Horn I, Taros T, Dirkes S, Hüer L, Rose M, Tietmeyer R, Constantinides E (2015) Business reputation and social media: A primer on threats and responses. J of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice 16(3):193–208.
  67. Humanitarian technologies (2008) Kak uluchshit’ imidzh rossijskogo biznesa v Evropejskom Sojuze? Rekomendacii brjussel’skih lobbistov (How to improve the image of Russian business in the European Union? The recommendations of the Brussels lobbyists). Accessed 3 Mar 2019
  68. Instituto Español de Estudios Estratégicos (2015) Russian national security strategy, Dec 2015 – full-text translation. Accessed 3 Mar 2019
  69. Internal Revenue Service (2019) Examples of common business interests. Accessed 3 March 2019
  70. International Energy Agency (2018a) Oil 2018. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  71. International Energy Agency (2018b) Gas 2018. Analysis and forecasts to 2023. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  72. Ivanov NA (2014) Slancevaja Amerika: jenergeticheskaja politika SShA i osvoenie netradicionnyh neftegazovyh resursov (Shale America: U.S. Energy Policy and the Development of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources). Magistr, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  73. Kalyukov E, Podobedova L (2018) Reuters uznal o sokrashchenii Gazpromom soten sotrudnikov za rubezhom (Reuters learned about Gazprom’s reduction of hundreds of employees abroad). RBC. 14 Mar. Accessed 12 Feb 2019
  74. Kommersant (2018) SMI uznali o planah Gazproma prekratit’ torgovat’ cherez operatora v Germanii (The media learned about Gazprom’s plans to stop trading through the operator in Germany). 11 Jul. Accessed 28 Feb 2019
  75. Kommersant (2019) Operator Severnogo potoka 2 otricaet otkaz Danii soglasovat gazoprovod (Nord Stream 2 operator denies Denmark’s refusal to agree on a gas pipeline) Accessed 8 Apr 2019
  76. Krasіnskij (2016) “Hitree” chem Shell Kto budet dobyvat slancevyj gaz v Ukraine (“Trickier” than Shell. Who will produce shale gas in Ukraine). Espreso. 3 Aug. Accessed 12 April 2019
  77. Kushch O (2018) Corruption in Gazprom as an instrument for fighting Russia. 112 UA. Accessed 8 Feb 2019
  78. Langham T (2018) Reputation management: the future of corporate communications and public relations (PRCA Practice Guides). Emerald Publishing Limited, BingleyGoogle Scholar
  79. Lefebvre D (2017) Republicans brewing Russian scandal to target greens. Politico. 23 Jul. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  80. Lomskaya T, Baranova E, Toporkov A (2017) Rossijskie goskompanii tratjat milliony evro na lobbirovanie svoih interesov v ES (Russian state-owned companies spend millions of euros to lobby their interests in the EU). Vedomosti. 6 Jul. Accessed 26 Feb 2019
  81. Luhn A (2014) Crimea struggles to adapt to life as part of Russia. The Guardian. 9 May. Accessed 8 Feb 2019
  82. Lukoil (2015) Konsolidirovannaya finansovaya otchetnost’ (Consolidated financial statement). Accessed 7 Feb 2019
  83. Lukoil (2016) Konsolidirovannaya finansovaya otchetnost’ (Consolidated financial statement). Accessed 7 Feb 2019
  84. Lukoil (2017b) Konsolidirovannaya finansovaya otchetnost’ (Consolidated financial statement). Accessed 7 Feb 2019
  85. Lukoil (2017c) Spravochnik analitika 2017 (Analyst databook 2017). Accessed 10 Feb 2019
  86. Lukoil (2018) Sokrashchennaya promezhutochnaya konsolidirovannaya finansovaya otchetnost’ (Condensed interim consolidated financial statement). Accessed 7 Feb 2019
  87. Luthans F, Doh JP (2006) International management: culture, strategy, and behavior. 8th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  88. Mard MJ, Hitchner JR, Hyden SD, Zyla ML (2002) Valuation for financial reporting. Intangible assets, goodwill, and impairment analysis, SFAS 141 and 142. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  89. Masterpanov A (2012) Slancevyj gaz: chto on nesyot Rossii (Shale gas: what is it carrying to Russia?). Russian International Affairs Council. Accessed 13 April 2019
  90. Melnikova S, Sorokin S, Goryacheva A, Galkin A (2012) Pervye 5 let “slancevoj revoljucii”: chto my teper’ znaem navernjaka? Informacionno-analiticheskij obzor (The first 5 years of the “shale revolution”: what do we know for sure now? Analytical report). In: The Energy Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  91. Mills D (2014) North America versus Europe: consumer marketing preferences. PerformanceIN. 27 Aug. Accessed 4 Feb 2019
  92. Ministry for Economic Development of the Russian Federation (2017) Austria. Business guide. Integrated Foreign Economic Information Portal. Accessed 3 Mar 2019
  93. Ministry for Economic Development of the Russian Federation (2018) Germany. Business guide. Integrated Foreign Economic Information Portal. Accessed 3 Mar 2019
  94. Ministry for Economic Development of the Russian Federation (2019). World Countries. Integrated Foreign Economic Information Portal. Accessed 3 Mar 2019
  95. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (2000) National security concept of the Russian Federation. Approved by Presidential Decree No. 24 of 10 Jan. Accessed 3 Mar 2019
  96. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (2016) Foreign policy concept of the Russian Federation. Approved by President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin on Nov 30, 2016. Accessed 3 Mar 2019
  97. Mordyushenko O (2017) Lukojl prodaet, potomu chto prodaet (Lukoil sells because it sells). Kommersant. 26 Sep. Accessed 10 Feb 2019
  98. Muhametshina E, Eremina A, Bryzgalova E (2018) Politologi pomogut Grefu ocenit’ reputacionnye riski. (Political scientists will help Gref assess reputational risks). Vedomosti. 30 Mar. Accessed 21 Feb 2019
  99. Nessebar D (2014) Dobycha slancevogo gaza: posledstvija i problemi (Shale Gas Production: Consequences and Challenges). 4 Dec. Accessed 30 Apr 2019
  100. Nikolova M (2017) Robot lawyer set to replace 3,000 employees at Sberbank. Financefeeds. 23 Jan. Accessed 15 Feb 2019
  101. Official Journal of the European Union (2016) Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union. Title XVII. Industry. Article 173 (ex Article 157 TEC). In: Consolidated Versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (2016/C 202/01). Accessed 3 Mar 2019
  102. Olson B, Cook L (2017) Wall Street tells frackers to stop counting barrels, start making profits. Wall Street Journal. 13 Dec. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  103. Panibratov A, Pantic B (2018) Internationalization of Lukoil: A Russian push and pull strategy in Europe. In: Suder G, Lindeque J (eds) Doing business in Europe, 3rd edn. SAGE, London, UK, pp 480–488Google Scholar
  104. Petlevoj V (2018) Lukojl stoit dorozhe Rosnefti (Lukoil is more expensive than Rosneft). Vedomosti. 28 Mar. Accessed 13 Feb 2019
  105. Pew Research Center (2018) Eastern and Western Europeans differ on importance of religion, views of minorities, and key social issues. 29 Oct. Accessed 25 Feb 2019
  106. (2016) Na Ukrainu vozvrashchaetsya slancevyj uzhas (Shale horror returns to Ukraine). 8 Aug. Accessed 12 Apr 2019
  107. Rankin J (2017) Cloud of corruption hangs over Bulgaria as it takes up EU presidency. The Guardian. 28 Dec. Accessed 15 Feb 2019
  108. Rapoza K (2017) When Russia finally hops on shale bandwagon, OPEC is finished. Forbes. 29 Aug. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  109. Rapoza K (2018) Latest anti-Russia sanctions bill does not target Nord Stream II. Forbes. 24 Jul. Accessed 6 Feb 2019
  110. Regnum (2018) Energosotrudnichestvo Rossii i Vostochnoj Evropy: kto ot kogo zavisit? (Energy cooperation between Russia and Eastern Europe: who depends on whom?). 6 Feb. Accessed 6 Feb 2019
  111. Reputation Institute (2018) Powering the world’s most reputable companies. Accessed 5 Feb 2019
  112. RIA Novosti (2016) Gazprom planiruet ob’edinit’ Wingas i GM&T, dumaet nad novym brendom (Gazprom plans to unite Wingas and GM&T, thinks over a new brand). Accessed 21 Feb 2019
  113. RIA Novosti (2017) V Gazprome pojasnili otkaz ot uchastija v “slancevoj lihoradke” (In Gazprom Explained the Refusal to Take Part in the “Shale Fever”). 28 Feb. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  114. Roberts M (2019) A good name: why your business needs a reputation management and marketing strategy. Big Eagle Marketing, Inwood, WVGoogle Scholar
  115. Sabelnikov L (2017) Interesy biznesa vo vneshnej i vneshnejekonomicheskoj politike zarubezhnyh stran (Business interests in foreign and external economic policy abroad). J Rossijskij vneshnejekonomicheskij vestnik (Russian Foreign Policy Herald) 6:47–57Google Scholar
  116. Sánchez Andrés A (2015) Spain and the European Union-Russia conflict: the impact of the sanctions. CIDOB – Barcelona Centre for International Affairs. Accessed 3 Mar 2019
  117. Sberbank (2016) Sberbank Europe finalizes the sale of Sberbank Slovakia. Accessed 15 Feb 2019
  118. Sberbank (2019) Sberbank – Za male in velike želje (Sberbank – for small and large wishes). Official Facebook page. Accessed 17 Feb 2019
  119. Sberbank CZ (2018) Sberbank Family Run se poprvé poběží v Liberci (Sberbank Family Run first will run in Liberec). Accessed 14 Feb 2019
  120. Sberbank CZ (2019a) Official Instagram page. Accessed 17 Feb 2019
  121. Sberbank CZ (2019b) Official Vkontakte page. Accessed 17 Feb 2019
  122. Sberbank CZ (2019c) Official YouTube page. Accessed 17 Feb 2019
  123. Sberbank Magyarország (2019) Official Facebook page. Accessed 17 Feb 2019
  124. Sberbank Press Center (2018) Sberbank is recognized as the most innovative Bank in Central and Eastern Europe. Accessed 12 Feb 2019
  125. Seddon M (2018) The hacker, hacked: national criminals attack Russian banks. Financial Times. 15 Mar. Accessed 12 Feb 2019
  126. Seroka M (2018) Bulgaria: consequences of the murder of journalist Viktoria Marinova. Center for Eastern Studies. 17 Oct. Accessed 20 Feb 2019
  127. Simons G (2015) Nation branding and Russian foreign policy. Tractus Aevorum J. Accessed 2 Feb 2019
  128. Suharevskaya A, Yastrebova S (2018) Rossijskie kompanii zashchityat personal’nye dannye po evropejskomu zakonu. (Russian companies will protect personal data under European law). Vedomosti. 25 May. Accessed 2 Feb 2019
  129. Tadtaev G (2018) Gref rasskazal o sokrashhenijah v Sberbanke iz-za iskusstvennogo intellekta (Gref spoke about the cuts in Sberbank due to artificial intelligence). RBC. 10 Nov. Accessed 3 Mar 2019
  130. (2015) Iz Lukoila v AMIC: chto stoit za smenoj vyveski? (From Lukoil to AMIC: What is Hidden behind the Front Change?). 8 Jun. Accessed 29 Aug 2019
  131. US Congress (2017) An Act to Provide Congressional Review and to Counter Aggression by the Governments of Iran, the Russian Federation, and North Korea, and for Other Purposes. US Treasury. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  132. US Congress (2019). Bill H.R. 1616 to prioritize the efforts of and enhance coordination among United States agencies to encourage countries in Central and Eastern Europe to diversify their energy sources and supply routes, increase Europe’s energy security, and help the United States reach its global energy security goals, and for other purposes. In: US House of Representatives Document Repository. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  133. Uskov N (2016) Herman Gref: we don’t know how to work in the system, we need a feat. Forbes. 24 Jun.,0. Accessed 12 Feb 2019
  134. Van Doorn J, Onrust M, Verhoef PC, Bügel MS (2017) The impact of corporate social responsibility on customer attitudes and retention—the moderating role of brand success indicators. J of Brand Management 28:607–619Google Scholar
  135. Vedomosti (2015) Miller rasskazal ob uhode v gluhoe podpol’e slancevoj revoljucii (Miller Told about Leaving in the Deep Underground Shale Revolution). 6 Oct. Accessed 23 Apr 2019
  136. Verlup S (2009) Osobennosti ekonomicheskogo interesa sovremennyh transnacional’nyh korporacij i ih uchet v sovmestnom mezhdunarodnom biznese (Features of the contemporary transnational corporations’ economic interests and their account in joint international business). J Vestnik Polockogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta (Herald of Polotsk State University). Serija D. Jekonomicheskie i juridicheskie nauki (Part D. Economic and Law sciences) 10:55–58Google Scholar
  137. Vesti FM (2019) 73% zhitelej Germanii podderzhivayut stroitel’stvo “Severnogo potoka-2” (73% of German residents support the construction of Nord Stream 2). 22 Jan. Accessed 16 Feb 2019
  138. Voronova T (2017) Vo chto Herman Gref prevratil Sberbank za 10 let (Into what Herman Gref has transformed the Sberbank in 10 years). Vedomosti. 4 Dec. Accessed 7 Feb 2019
  139. World Economic Forum (2018) Regional risks for doing business 2018. Insight report. Accessed 5 Feb 2019
  140. World Values Survey (2014) Cultural map – WVS wave 6 (2010–2014). Accessed 17 Feb 2019
  141. Zissu A (2016) How to tackle fracking in your community. Natural Resources Defense Council. 27 Jan. Accessed 14 Apr 2019

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public AdministrationMoscowRussia
  2. 2.International Center for Social and Political Studies and ConsultingMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations