Light Science pp 279-303 | Cite as


  • Thomas D. RossingEmail author
  • Christopher J. Chiaverina


Looking at holographic images is exciting! Some appear to float in space; some appear in full color; some change color as you move your head; some even show subjects that move.


Glossary of Terms

amplitude hologram

A hologram that modulates the reference beam through absorption.


Dissolving silver particles to make the emulsion more transparent and the reconstructed image brighter. Bleaching changes an amplitude hologram into a phase hologram.


Strong reflection at certain angles by diffraction of light from planes of recorded fringes. Bragg’s law shows how the angle depends upon the spacing of the planes and the wavelength of the light.


Light having a fixed relationship between the phase of light waves of a single wavelength.


A reflection hologram in which a single beam serves as both reference beam and object beam by passing through the emulsion twice.


A recording of interference fringes from which a three-dimensional image can be reconstructed.


A holographic recording using two or more images to show motion or some other time-dependent phenomenon.

Lippmann photography

A technique for making color photographs that makes use of Bragg reflection.

object beam

Portion of the laser beam that illuminates the object.


A holographic image that has normal front to back perspective.

phase hologram

A transparent hologram in which the fringes modulate the phase of the reference beam during image reconstruction.


A hologram in which the emulsion thickness is varied to produce colors different from the light used to record it.


An image that is reversed front to back.


A hologram whose image changes color as the viewpoint is moved up and down.


An image that can be projected on a screen.

real-time holographicinterferometry

Creating an interference pattern between an object and its hologram in order to see how much the object has moved or changed.

reference beam

Portion of the laser beam that goes directly to the film or camera.


A hologram that can be viewed from the front as if it were a painting.

time-average interferogram

Combining many holograms in the same image; in the case of a vibrating object, the nodes appear as bright lines and fringes of equal amplitude occur in the antinodal regions.


Hologram that uses the real image from another hologram as its object.


A hologram that is viewed by illuminating it from behind with monochromatic light.


A hologram that is created by electronically comparing the reference beam and the object beam.


An image that cannot be projected on a screen.

Further Reading

  1. Bjelkhagen, H. I., & Brotherton-Ratcliffe, D. (2013) Ultra-Realistic Imaging, Advanced Techniques in Analogue and Digital Colour Holography. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  2. Harper, G. D. J. (2010). Holography Projects for the Evil Genius. New York: McGraw-Hill Education TAB.Google Scholar
  3. Hariharan, P. (2002). Basics of Holography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Hubel, P., & Klug, M. A. (1992). Color holography using multiple layers of DuPont photopolymer. In S. A. Benton (Ed.), Practical Holography V (pp. 215–224). Proceedings of the SPIE 1667, Bellingham, WA: SPIE.Google Scholar
  5. Jeong, T. H. (1987). Laser Holography. Southfield, MI: Thomas Alva Edison Foundation. Reprinted and distributed by Integraf, Box 586, Lake Forest, IL 60045.Google Scholar
  6. Kasper, J. E., & Feller, S. A. (2001). The Complete Book of Holograms: How They Work and How to Make Them. Mineola, NY: Dover Press.Google Scholar
  7. Saxby, G., & Zacharovas, S. (2015). Practical Holography, 4th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas D. Rossing
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christopher J. Chiaverina
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Music, Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA)Stanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.New Trier Township High SchoolWinnetkaUSA

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