• Aitber BizhanovEmail author
  • Valentina Chizhikova
Part of the Topics in Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering book series (TMMME)


The creation of a dense mass of dispersed material is a favorite occupation of man, starting from the new Stone Age (the Neolithic, from 7000 BC). Almost as often, a person has to resort to the opposite effect—grinding a solid material. The most important branch of economic activity, in which both of these processes are extremely important, is metallurgy, which originated in the so-called Iron Age (from 1200 BC to 340 AD). And by the way, in which century we live now? Judging by the role that iron and steel play in our life, we can confidently consider the modern era of the information civilization as another period of the Iron Age.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.J.C. Steele & Sons, IncMoscowRussia
  2. 2.National University of Steel and AlloysMoscowRussia

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