Violent Resistance: The Irish Revolution and India
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Gandhi famously advocated pacifism, but Indian opposition to British rule was not exclusively non-violent; many physical force nationalists used the Irish (violent) model as their blueprint. The two episodes that are looked at in this chapter, namely the Chittagong Uprising of 1930 and the wartime activities of Subhas Chandra Bose, offer examples of Indian physical force nationalism that are relatively little-known outside of India. The violent nature of these events cuts against an accepted historical narrative of the Gandhian non-violent struggle against the Raj. These overlooked moments in the Indian nationalist movement illustrate the influence of an appropriated memory of the Irish 1916 Easter Rising—one that helped shape both the actions of Indian insurgents and the British Indian administration’s reactions.