The Multiple Agencies of Metropolitan Institutions: Is There Convergence?

  • Christophe DemazièreEmail author


This chapter examines the multiple agencies of institutions that drive processes of metropolitan change. The institutional context of metropolitan planning and development largely determines the opportunities and constraints that condition and sets the rules for metropolitan actors to partake in such processes. While intrinsically linked to the genius loci, national and/or regional governments continue to play key roles in setting agendas and shaping debates about the future of metropolitan regions, e.g. through enabling or blocking institutional, legal or fiscal tools. At the same time, there is an increasing influence of private and non-governmental actors attempting to influence metropolitan development agenda and processes. This chapter focuses on the rationales behind the motivations and strategies of different actors with a stake in metropolitan policymaking. To shed light on the policy contexts where collaboration and competition take place, the chapter delves into the interplay between local governments and an array of public, private and non-governmental stakeholders holding capacity to cater to metropolitan growth and development.


Metropolitan institutions Decentralisation Metropolitan government New Public Management 


  1. Baraize, F., & Négrier, E. (Eds.). (2001). L’invention Politique de l’Agglomération. Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
  2. Blatter, J. (2006). Geographic scale and functional scope in metropolitan governance reform: Theory and evidence from Germany. Journal of Urban Affairs, 28(2), 121–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bölling, L., & Sieverts, T. (2004). Mitten am Rand: Auf dem Weg von der Vorstadt über die Zwischenstadt zur Regionalen Stadtlandschaft. Wuppertal: Müller and Busmann.Google Scholar
  4. Booth, P., Breuillard, M., Fraser, C., & Paris, D. (Eds.). (2007). Spatial planning systems of Britain and France: A comparative analysis. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Brenner, N. (2004). Urban governance and the production of new state spaces in western Europe, 1960–2000. Review of International Political Economy, 11(3), 447–488.Google Scholar
  6. Dlabac, O., Medir, L., Tomàs, M., & Lackowska, M. (2018). Metropolitan challenges and reform pressures across Europe—the perspectives of city mayors. Local Government Studies, 44(2), 229–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Demazière, C. (2017). Des métropoles incompletes: Points communs et différences des institutions métropolitaines en Angleterre et en France [Incomplete cities: Commonalities and institutional differences between metropolitan areas in England and France]. Pouvoirs Locaux, 111, 36–42.Google Scholar
  8. Demazière, C. (2018). Strategic spatial planning in a situation of fragmented local government: The case of France. disP The Planning Review, 54(2), 56–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eurocities. (2013). Metropolitan areas in action. Brussels: Eurocities.Google Scholar
  10. Fedeli, V. (2017). Metropolitan governance and metropolitan cities in Italy: Outdated solutions for processes of urban regionalisation? Raumforschung und Raumordnung, 75(3), 265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Freund, B. (2003). The Frankfurt Rhine-Main region. In W. Salet, A. Thornley, & A. Kreukels (Eds.), Metropolitan governance and spatial planning: Comparative case studies of European city-regions (pp. 125–144). London: Spon Press.Google Scholar
  12. Gibbs, D. (2000). Ecological modernisation, regional economic development and regional development agencies. Geoforum, 31(1), 9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hanson, R., Wolmann, H., Connolly, D., Pearson, L., & McManmon, R. (2010). Globalization and leadership in American cities. In P. Kantor, & D. Judd (Eds.), American urban politics in a global age (pp. 47–63). New York: Pearson Longman.Google Scholar
  14. Harrison, J., & Growe, A. (2014). From places to flows? Planning for the new ‘regional world’ in Germany. European Urban and Regional Studies, 21(1), 21–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harvey, D. (1989). From managerialism to entrepreneurialism: The transformation in urban politics in late capitalism. Geografiska Annaler B, 71(1), 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoyler, M., Freytag, T., & Mager, C. (2006). Advantageous fragmentation? Reimagining metropolitan governance and spatial planning in Rhine-Main. Built Environment, 32(2), 124–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hulst, R., & van Montfort, A. (2011). Institutional features of inter-municipal cooperation: Cooperative arrangements and their national contexts. Public Policy and Administration, 27(2), 121–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Keil, R., & Siegl, C. (2017). The global city comes home: Internalised globalisation in Frankfurt Rhine-Main. In R. Keil, P. Hamel, J.-A. Boudreau, & S. Kipfer (Eds.), Governing cities through regions: Canadian and European perspectives (pp. 259–282). Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Jansen, H., Wünnemann, M., & Roost, F. (2017). Post-suburban revitalization? Redevelopment of suburban business centres in the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main region. Journal of Urban Design, 22(2), 249–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jessop, B. (1993). Towards a Schumpeterian workfare state? Preliminary remarks on post-Fordist political wconomy. Studies in Political Economy, 40(1), 7–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jonas, A. E. G., Goetz, A., & Bhattacharjee, S. (2014). City-regionalism as a politics of collective provision: Regional transport infrastructure in Denver, USA. Urban Studies, 51(11), 2444–2465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jouve, B., & Lefèvre, C. (Eds.). (1999). Villes, métropoles: Les nouveaux territoires du politique [Cities, metropolises: The new territories of the politics]. Paris: Economica.Google Scholar
  23. Lackowska, M. (2011). Frankfurt/Rhine-Main: Governance without coordination? In H. Heinelt, E. Razin, & K. Zimmermann (Eds.), Metropolitan governance: Different paths in contrasting contexts: Germany and Israel, Campus (pp. 79–114). Frankfurt am Main: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Le Galès, P. (1988). Grande-Bretagne: Le gouvernement contre les villes [Great Britain: The government against cities]. Annales de la Recherche Urbaine, 38(1), 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lefèvre, C., & Weir, M. (2010). Building metropolitan institutions. In K. Mossberger, S. Clarke, & P. John (Eds.), Urban politics (pp. 624–641). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Majoor, S., & Salet, W. (2008). The enlargement of local power in trans-scalar strategies of planning: Recent tendencies in two European cases. GeoJournal, 72(1), 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McCann, E. (2013). Policy boosterism, policy mobilities, and the extrospective city. Urban Geography, 34(1), 5–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mullis, D., Belina, B., Petzold, T., Pohl, L., & Schipper, S. (2016). Social protest and its policing in the ‘heart of the European crisis regime’: The case of Blockupy in Frankfurt, Germany. Political Geography, 55(1), 50–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nelles, J. (2013). Cooperation and capacity? Exploring the sources and limits of city-region governance partnerships. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 37(4), 1349–1367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. OECD. (2015). OECD Outlook: France. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  31. Paris, D., & Baert, T. (2011). Lille 2004 and the role of culture in the regeneration of Lille Métropole. Town Planning Review, 82(1), 29–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pinson, G., & Morel Journel, C. (2016). The neoliberal city—theory, evidence, debates. Territory, Politics, Governance, 4(2), 137–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Savini, F. (2013). The governability of national spatial planning: Light instruments and logics of governmental action in strategic urban development. Urban Studies, 50(8), 1592–1607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schipper, S. (2014). The financial crisis and the hegemony of urban neoliberalism: Lessons from Frankfurt am Main. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(1), 236–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Swyngedouw, E., & Kaika, M. (2000). The environment of the city or… the urbanisation of nature. In G. Bridge, & S. Watson (Eds.), A companion to the city (pp. 51–67). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  36. Tomàs, M. (2016). Building narratives of city-regions: The case of Barcelona. In R. Keil, P. Hamel, J-A. Boudreau, & S. Kipfer (Eds.), Governing cities through regions: Canadian and European perspectives (pp. 319–335). Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Tomàs, M. (2020). Metropolitan revolution or metropolitan evolution? The (dis)continuities in metropolitan institutional reforms. In K. Zimmermann, D. Galland, & J. Harrison (Eds.), Metropolitan regions, planning and governance (pp. 25–39). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  38. Wheeler, S. (2009). Regions, megaregions, and sustainability. Regional Studies, 43(6), 863–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zimmermann, K. (2014). Democratic metropolitan governance: Experiences in five German metropolitan regions. Urban Research & Practice, 7(2), 182–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zimmermann, K. (2017). Re-scaling of metropolitan governance in Germany. Raumforschung und Raumordnung, 75(3), 253–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zimmermann, K. (2020). What is at stake for metropolitan regions and their governance institutions? In K. Zimmermann, D. Galland, & J. Harrison (Eds.), Metropolitan regions, planning and governance (pp. 59–74). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  42. Zimmermann, K., & Heinelt, H. (2012). Metropolitan governance in Deutschland: Regieren in Ballungsräumen und neue Formen politischen Steuerung [Metropolitan governance in Germany: Governing in metropolitan areas and new forms of political governance]. Wiesbaden: Springer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ToursToursFrance

Personalised recommendations