Long-Term Evolution

  • Marcelo S. AlencarEmail author
  • Valdemar C. da Rocha Jr.


The mobile communications’ standard that succeeded the UMTS system became known as Long-Term Evolution (LTE). The Long-Term Evolution–Advanced, or LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) version, was developed by the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). The LTE-A exceeds the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) requirements for the fourth-generation radiocommunication (4G) standard, known as IMT-Advanced.


  1. Alcatel-Lucent (2009). The LTE network architecture.Google Scholar
  2. Astély, D., Dahlman, E., Furuskär, A., Jading, Y., Lindström, M., & Parkvall, S. (2009). LTE: The evolution of mobile broadband.Google Scholar
  3. Dahlman, E., Parkvall, S., Sköld, J., & Beming, P. (2008). 3G evolution: HSPA and LTE for mobile broadband (2nd ed.). Academic, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  4. Ergen, Mustafa. (2009). Mobile broadband including WiMAX and LTE. Berkeley: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Holma, Harri, & Toskala, Antti. (2009). LTE for UMTS OFDMA and SC-FDMA based radio access. Nokia Siemens Networks, Finland: Wiley Ltd.Google Scholar
  6. Khan, F. (2009). LTE for 4G mobile broadband (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Sánchez, Juan J., Morales-Jiménez, D., Gómez, G., & Enbrambasaguas, J. T. (2007). Physical layer performance of long term evolution cellular technology.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcelo S. Alencar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Valdemar C. da Rocha Jr.
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Advanced Studies in CommunicationsFederal University of BahiaSalvadorBrazil
  2. 2.Institute of Advanced Studies in CommunicationsFederal University of PernambucoRecifeBrazil

Personalised recommendations