Models of the Transformation of Democracy: Critical Overview Through a Demand and Supply Framework

  • Gergana DimovaEmail author
Part of the Challenges to Democracy in the 21st Century book series (CDC)


Seen through the analytical framework of supply and demand, all models of the transformation of democracy agree that supply is expandable and that public demand is active. However, they have very different explanations as to why this is the case. It is a point of contention whether the expansion of supply is caused by the representative, agonistic, cultural, deliberative, participatory or some other “turn”. Another line of argument inquires whether people demand more because the public is fragmented or homogenised.


Democracy Transformation Deliberative turn Participatory turn International turn 


  1. Ankersmit, Frank. 1996. Aesthetic Politics: Political Philosophy Beyond Fact and Value. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Archibugi, Daniele. 2008. The Global Commonwealth of Citizens: Toward Cosmopolitan Democracy. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Azmanova, Albena. 2012. The Scandal of Reason: A Critical Theory of Political Judgment. New York : Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Azmanova, Albena. 2013. Political Judgment for Agonistic Democracy. No Foundations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Law and Justice 10: 23–39. Google Scholar
  5. Azmanova, Albena. 2014. Crisis? Capitalism Is Doing Very Well: How Is Critical Theory? Constellations: An International Journal of Critical and Democratic Theory 21 (3): 351–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey, David. 2014. Contending the Crisis: What Role for Extra-Parliamentary British Politics? British Politics 9 (1): 68–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bauman, Zygmunt. 2003. Liquid Love: On the Frailty of Human Bonds. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, Ulrich, and E. Grande. 2010. Varieties of Second Modernity: The Cosmopolitan Turn in Social and Political Theory and Research. The British Journal of Sociology 61 (3): 409–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beck, Ulrich, and Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim. 2013. Distant Love. Polity Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bevir, Mark. 2014. Decentering Governance: A Democratic Turn? In Democracy and Crisis: Democratising Governance in the Twenty-First Century, ed. Benjamin Isakhan and Steven Slaughter. Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  11. Bevir, Mark, and Rod A.W. Rhodes. 2010. The State as Cultural Practice. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Brennan, Jason. 2016. Against Democracy. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Chomsky, Noam. 2002. Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda, vol. 7. Seven Stories Press.Google Scholar
  14. Crouch, Colin. 2004. Post-Democracy. Polity Press.Google Scholar
  15. Crozier, Michel, Samuel P. Huntington, and Joji Watanuki. 1975. The Crisis of Democracy. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Csigo, Peter. 2009. Book Review: Political Representation. Politics and Culture 4. Available at Accessed March 27, 2017.
  17. Dahl, Robert. 1994. A Democratic Dilemma: System Effectiveness versus Citizen Participation. Political Science Quarterly 109 (1): 23–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dasqupta, Sadipto. 2010. Shareholder Democracy and Its Discontents. Available at Accessed March 27, 2017.
  19. Della Porta, Donatella. 2012. Critical Trust: Social Movements and Democracy in Times of Crisis. Cambio 2 (4): 33–43. Available at Accessed February, 2015.
  20. Della Porta, Donatella. 2013. Can Democracy Be Saved? Participation, Deliberation and Social Movements. Polity Press.Google Scholar
  21. Dryzek, John. 2002. Deliberative Democracy and Beyond Liberals, Critics, Contestations. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Dryzek, John. 2011. Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Governance. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. EBU. 2014, May 15. Eurovision Debate. Available at Accessed April 20, 2015.
  24. Friedman, Jonathan, and Shalini Randeria (eds.). 2004. Worlds on the Move: Globalisation, Migration and Cultural Security, vol. 6. London: IB Tauris.Google Scholar
  25. Flinders, Matthew, and Katherine Dommett. 2013. Gap Analysis: Participatory Democracy, Public Expectations and Community Assemblies in Sheffield. Local Government Studies 39 (4): 488–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fukuyama, Francis. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. Profile Books.Google Scholar
  27. Fung, Archon. 2006. Empowered Participation: Reinventing Urban Democracy. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Fung, Archon. 2009. Empowered Participation: Reinventing Urban Democracy. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Garsten, Bryan. 2010. Representative Government and Popular Sovereignty. In Representation and Popular Rule, ed. Ian Shapiro, Susan Stokes, and Elisabeth Wood. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Giddens, Anthony. 1991. Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Goodin, Robert. 2008. Innovating Democracy: Democratic Theory and Practice After the Deliberative Turn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Gould, Carol. 2014. Interactive Democracy. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Green, Jeffrey. 2009. The Eyes of the People: Democracy in an Age of Spectatorship. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Green, Jeffrey. 2010. The Eyes of the People: Democracy in an Age of Spectatorship. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Held, David. 2004. Models of Democracy. Polity Press.Google Scholar
  36. Held, David cited in Paul Gagnon. 2014. Democratic Theorists in Conversation: Turns in Contemporary Thought. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  37. Held, David, Anthony McGrew, David Goldblatt, and Jonathan Perraton. 1999. Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  38. Habermas, Jürgen. 2001. The Post-national Constellation. MIT Press.Google Scholar
  39. Howard, Philip, and Muzammil M. Hussein. 2013. Democracy’s Fourth Wave?: Digital Media and the Arab Spring. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jahanbegloo, Ramin. 2014. The Cultural Turn in New Democratic Theory. In Democratic Theorists in Conversation, ed. Paul Gagnon. Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. Kampfner, John. 2009. Review of John Keane’s Book The Life and Death of Democracy. Available at Accessed February 2015.
  42. Karyotis, Georgios, and Wolfgang Rudig. 2015. Blame and Punishment? The Electoral Politics of Extreme Austerity in Greece. Political Studies 63 (1): 2–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Karyotis, Georgios, and Wolfgang Rüdig. 2016. The Three Waves of Anti-Austerity Protest in Greece, 2010–2015. Political Studies Review. Available at Accessed June 2017.
  44. Keane, John, 2008. Monitory Democracy? Paper prepared for the ESRC Seminar Series, ‘Emergent Publics’. The Open University, Milton Keynes. Available at Last accessed June 5, 2017.
  45. Keane, John. 2009. Monitory Democracy and Media-Saturated Societies. Griffith Review 24: Particiation Society.Google Scholar
  46. Keane, John. 2011. A Productive Challenge Unelected Representatives Can Enrich Democracy. WZB Mitteilungen Heft 131.Google Scholar
  47. Keane, John. 2013. Democracy and Media Decadence. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Keating, Michael. 2004. Plurinational Democracy: Stateless Nations in a Post-Sovereignty Era. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Kompridis, Nikolas. 2014. The Aesthetic Turn in Political Thought. USA: Bloomsbury Publishing.Google Scholar
  50. Landemore, Helene. 2017. Deliberative Democracy as Open, Not (Just) Representative Democracy. Dædalus, Journal of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences 146 (3): 1–13.Google Scholar
  51. Leonardsson, Hanna, and Gustav Rudd. 2015. The ‘Local Turn’ in Peacebuilding: A Literature Review of Effective and Emancipatory Local Peacebuilding. Third World Quarterly 36 (5): 825–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lewis, Justin. 2001. Constructing Public Opinion. Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Linklauter, Andrew. 1998. Citizenship and Sovereignty in the Post-Westphalian State. In Re-imagining Political Community: Studies in Cosmopolitan Democracy, ed. Daniele Archibugi, David Held, and Martin Köehler. Polity Press.Google Scholar
  54. Lippman, Walter. 1997 (1992). Public Opinion. The Free Press.Google Scholar
  55. Macdonald, Terry. 2008. Global Stakeholder Democracy. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Mac Ginty, Roger, and Oliver P. Richmond. 2013. The Local Turn in Peace Building: A Critical Agenda for Peace. Third World Quarterly 34 (5): 763–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mair, Peter. 2011/2012. Bini Shaghi vs the Parties Representative Government and Institutional Constraints. Available at Accessed March 12, 2017.
  58. Manin, Bernard. 1987. On Legitimacy and Political Deliberation. Political Theory (3): 338–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Manin, Bernard. 1997. The Principles of Representative Government. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Manin, Bernard. 1999. Democracy, Accountability, and Representation. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  61. McCormick, John. 2011. Machiavellian Democracy. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Medearis, John. 2015. Why Democracy Is Oppositional. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Mouffe, Chantal. 2005. The Return of the Political. Verso Books.Google Scholar
  64. Näsström, Sofia. 2011. Where Is the Representative Turn Going? European Journal of Political Theory 10 (4): 501–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Offe, Claus. 2011. Crisis and Innovation of Liberal Democracy: Can Deliberation Be Institutionalized? Available at Accessed May 23, 2014.
  66. Peruzzotti, Enrique and Catalina Smulovitz. 2006. Enforcing the Rule of Law: Social Accountability in the New Latin American Democracies. University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  67. Peterson, Abby, Mattias Wahlström, and Magnus Wennerhag. 2015. European Anti-austerity Protests–Beyond “Old” and “New” Social Movements? Acta Sociologica 58 (4): 293–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rancière, Jacques. 2011a. The Emancipated Spectator. Verso Books.Google Scholar
  69. Rancière, Jaques. 2011b. Democracies against Democracy. An interview with Eric Hazan. In Democracy in What State? ed. Agamben et al., 76–81. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Randazzo, Elisa. 2016. The Paradoxes of the ‘Everyday’: Scrutinising the Local Turn in Peace Building. Third World Quarterly 37 (8): 1351–1370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Robinson, Andrew, and Simon Tormey. 2007. Beyond Representation? A Rejoinder. Parliamentary Affairs 60 (1): 127–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rosanvallon, Pierre. 2006. Democracy Past and Future. Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Rosanvallon, Pierre. 2008. Counter-Democracy: Politics in an Age of Distrust. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Rosanvallon, Pierre cited in Paul Gagnon. 2014. Democratic Theorists in Conversation: Turns in Contemporary Thought. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  75. Saward, Michael. 2010. The Representative Claim. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Scaap, Andrew. 2012. Critical Exchange on Michael Saward’s The Representative Claim. Contemporary Political Theory 11 (1): 109–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schmitter, Philippe. 2011. Diagnosing and Designing Democracy in Europe. In The Future of Representative Democracy, ed. Sonia Alonso, John Keane, and Wolfgang Merkel, 191–211. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Scholte, Jan Aart. 2011. Building Global Democracy? Civil Society and Accountable Global Governance. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Sternberg, Claudia Shrag. 2013. The Struggle for EU Legitimacy: Public Contestation, 1950–2005. Palgrave.Google Scholar
  80. Strøm, Kaare, and Torbjorn Bergman. 2013. The Madisonian Turn: Political Parties and Parliamentary Democracy in Nordic Europe. University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  81. Sperling, Valerie. 2009. Altered States: The Globalization of Accountability: Globalization and Liberal State-Building. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Thomassen, Lasse. 2007. Beyond Representation? Parliamentary Affairs 60 (1): 111–126.Google Scholar
  83. Thompson, John B. 1995. The Media and Modernity: A Social Theory of the Media. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Tormey, Simon. 2015. The End of Representative Politics. Polity Press.Google Scholar
  85. Urbinati, Nadia. 2014. Democracy Disfigured. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Vibert, Frank. 2007. The Rise of the Unelected: Democracy and the New Separation of Powers. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Warren, Mark. 2003. The Second Transformation of Democracy. In Democracy Transformed? Expanding Political Opportunities in Advanced Industrial Democracies, ed. B.E. Cain, R.J. Dalton, S.E. Scarrow, B. Cain, and S.E. Scarrow. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Warren, Mark. 2009. A Second Transformation of Democracy? In Democracy Transformed? Expanding Political Opportunities in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Wolin, Sheldon. 2010. Democracy Incorporated: Managed Democracy and the Specter of Inverted Totalitarianism. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Zumbrunnen, John. 2008. Silence and Democracy: Athenian Politics in Thucydides’ History. Penn State Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Social Sciences, Forensics and PoliticsUniversity of WinchesterWinchesterUK

Personalised recommendations