Bundling Insights, Expanding Horizons, and Offering Solutions

  • Klaus Wahl


The final chapter offers a summary of the preceding interdisciplinary findings and North Atlantic comparisons. Then the horizon is broadened with a look to other continents as well as to the differences between right-wing and left-wing populism.

In addition, common-sense theories in public and political debates are confronted with results from interdisciplinary research on the complex roots of factors enabling the radical right. What matters more: economic or cultural factors? What are the roles of reason and emotions in political behavior? How do globalization, national and global governance, social emotions, and political sentiments interact? Does it all end in a vicious cycle? Are there any ways out of this vicious cycle in order to contain the radical right?


  1. Achen, C. H., & Bartels, L. M. (2016). Democracy for realists: Why elections do not produce responsive government. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adorno, Th. W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D. J., & Sanford, N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  3. ARD. (2013). Bundestagswahl 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  4. ARD. (2016a). Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Wählerwanderungen. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  5. Armborst, A., Biene, J., Coester, M., Greuel, F., Milbradt, B., & Nehlsen, I. (2018). Evaluation in der Radikalisierungsprävention: Ansätze und Kontroversen. PRIF report 11, 2018. Frankfurt am Main: Leibniz-Institut Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktforschung.Google Scholar
  6. Arzheimer, K. (2009). Contextual factors and the extreme right vote in Western Europe, 1980–2002. American Journal of Political Science, 53(2), 259–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arzheimer, K. (2012). Electoral sociology: Who votes for the extreme right and why—And when? In U. Backes & P. Moreau (Eds.), The extreme right in Europe: Current trends and perspectives (pp. 35–50). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  8. Asahina, Y. (2015). Mainstreaming of the right and a new right-wing movement in Japan. MA thesis, University of Hawaii, Manoa.Google Scholar
  9. Baier, D. (2018). Report for the 23rd German Congress on Crime Prevention. In H.-J. Kerner & E. Marks (Eds.), Internet documentation of the German Congress on Crime Prevention. Hannover. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  10. Banks, M., & Gingrich, A. (2006). Introduction. Neo-nationalism in Europe and beyond. In A. Gingrich & M. Banks (Eds.), Neo-nationalism in Europe and beyond—Perspectives from social anthropology (pp. 1–16). New York: Berghahn.Google Scholar
  11. Bartels, L. M. (2014). Ideology and retrospection in electoral responses to the great recession. In N. Bermeo & L. Bartels (Eds.), Mass politics in tough times: Opinions, votes and protest in the great recession (pp. 185–223). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beelmann, A. (2017). Grundlagen einer entwicklungsorientierten Prävention des Rechtsextremismus. Gutachten im Rahmen des Wissenschafts-Praxis-Dialogs zwischen dem Landespräventionsrat Niedersachsen und der Friedrich-Schiller Universität Jena. Jena. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  13. Beelmann, A., & Heinemann, K. S. (2014). Preventing prejudice and improving intergroup attitudes: A meta-analysis of child and adolescent training programs. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35(1), 10–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berelson, B. R., Lazarsfeld, P. F., & McPhee, W. N. (1954). Voting. A study of opinion formation in a presidential campaign. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  15. Betz, H.-G. (1993). The new politics of resentment: Radical right-wing populist parties in Western Europe. Comparative Politics, 25(4), 413–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Betz, H.-G. (2018). The radical right and populism. In J. Rydgren (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of the radical right (pp. 86–104). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford Handbooks Online. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  17. Blaya, C. (2018). Cyberhate: A review and content analysis of intervention strategies. Aggression and Violent Behavior. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  18. Bornschier, S., & Kriesi, H. (2013). The populist right, the working class, and the changing face of class politics. In J. Rygren (Ed.), Class politics and the radical right (pp. 10–30). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Bornstein, D., & Rosenberg, T. (2016, November 14). When reportage turns to cynicism. The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  20. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Bouvet, L. (2015). L’insécurité culturelle. Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
  22. Bowler, S., Denemark, D., Donovan, T., & McDonnell, D. (2017). Right-wing populist party supporters: Dissatisfied but not direct democrats. European Journal of Political Research, 56(1), 70–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bramatti, D. (2018, November 11). Bolsonaro também ganhou entre as mulheres, diz Ibope. Estadão. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from,bolsonaro-tambem-ganhou-entre-as-mulheres-diz-ibope,70002588225
  24. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. (2015). Turkey’s political parties. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  25. Carriero, R. (2016). More Inequality, fewer class differences: The paradox of attitudes to redistribution across European countries. Comparative Sociology, 15(1), 112–139.Google Scholar
  26. Carroll, W. E. (2014). Far right parties and movements in Europe, Japan, and the Tea Party in the US: A Comparative Analysis. Journal of Power, 2(2), 205–222.Google Scholar
  27. Castillejo, C. (2018). EU engagement with Africa on migration: A change of approach required. Briefing paper 9/2018. German Development Institute. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  28. Centola, D., Becker, J., Brackbill, D., & Baronchelli, A. (2018). Experimental evidence for tipping points in social convention. Science, 360(6393), 1116–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Christensen, H. S. (2015). Power sharing and political dissatisfaction: A multilevel analysis of the link between power-sharing institutions and kinds of political dissatisfaction in 24 European democracies. European Politics and Society, 16(2), 280–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clark, N. L., & Worger, W. H. (2013). South Africa: The rise and fall of apartheid. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. CNN Politics. (2016, November 23). Election 2016. Exit polls. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  32. Crush, J. (2008). The perfect storm: Realities of xenophobia in contemporary South Africa. Cape Town: Idasa.Google Scholar
  33. Daheim, C., & Wintermann, O. (2015). 2050: Die Zukunft der Arbeit. Ergebnisse einer internationalen Delphi-Studie des Millennium Project. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.Google Scholar
  34. Deegan, H. (2014). Politics South Africa. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deutsche Welle. (2016, November 10). Top stories, Germany: Are AfD voters the same as Trump voters? Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  36. Devine, P. G., Plant, E. A., Amodio, D. M., Harmon-Jones, E., & Vance, S. L. (2002). The regulation of explicit and implicit race bias: The role of motivations to respond without prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(5), 835–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dobbs, R., Madgavkar, A., Manyika, J., Woetzel, J., Bughin, J., Labaye, E., & Kashyap, P. (2016). Poorer than their parents: Flat or falling incomes in advanced economies. N.p.: McKinsey Global Institute. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  38. Doerschler, P., & Banaszak, L. A. (2007). Voter support for the German PDS over time: Dissatisfaction, ideology, losers and east identity. Electoral Studies, 26(2), 359–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dostal, J. M. (2015). The Pegida movement and German political culture: Is right-wing populism here to stay? The Political Quarterly, 86(4), 523–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ebbinghaus, B., & Manow, P. (Eds.). (2004). Comparing welfare capitalism: Social policy and political economy in Europe, Japan and the USA. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. Ebner, J. (2017). The rage: The vicious circle of Islamist and far-right extremism. London: Tauris.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. The Economist. (2016, December 19). What is populism? Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  43. Elff, M., & Rossteutscher, S. (2011). Stability or decline? Class, religion and the vote in Germany. German Politics, 20(1), 107–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Faiola, A., & Lopes, M. (2018, October 7). Brazilian presidential election goes to a second round as far-right candidate narrowly misses an outright win. The Washington Post. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  45. Flemes, D. (2018). Brazil’s elections: Nationalist populism on the rise. GIGA Focus Lateinamerika, no. 5. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  46. Foucault, M. (2017, February 1). Présidentielle: La désagrégation du vote de gauche se poursuit. Le Monde. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  47. Frey, C. B., & Osborne, M. A. (2017). The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation? Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 114, 254–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fukuyama, F. (2018). Identity: The demand for dignity and the politics of resentment. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  49. Gallup. (2018, August 26). Presidential approval ratings—Donald Trump. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  50. G1. (2018, October 24). Pesquisa Ibooe aponta opinião dos eleitores sobre Bolsonaro e Haddad com indice de rejeição e certeza do voto. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  51. Golder, M. (2016). Far right parties in Europe. Annual Review of Political Science, 19, 477–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Grabka, M. M., Goebel, J., Schröder, C., & Schupp, J. (2016). Shrinking share of middle-income group in Germany and the US. DIW Economic Bulletin, 6(18), 199–210.Google Scholar
  53. Grigera, J. (2017). Populism in Latin America: Old and new populisms in Argentina and Brazil. International Political Science Review, 38(4), 441–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gupta, K. (2016). Right-wing politics in India and the United States: A comparison of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangha and the Tea Party. Concord Review, 26(4), 1–29.Google Scholar
  55. Haynes, A., Devereux, E., & Breen, M. J. (2009). In the know? Media, migration and public beliefs. Translocations: Migration and Social Change. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from;sequence=1
  56. Heinö, A. (2017). Timbro Authoritarian Populism Index 2017. Stockholm: Timbro. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  57. Hibbing, J. R., Smith, K. B., & Alford, J. R. (2014). Differences in negativity bias underlie variations in political ideology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37(3), 297–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hickel, J. (2014). “Xenophobia” in South Africa: Order, chaos, and the moral economy of witchcraft. Cultural Anthropology, 29(1), 103–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hogan, J., & Haltinner, K. (2015). Floods, invaders, and parasites: Immigration threat narratives and right-wing populism in the USA, UK and Australia. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 36(5), 520–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Horkheimer, M. (Ed.). (1936). Studien über Autorität und Familie. Schriften des Instituts für Sozialforschung. Paris: Alcan.Google Scholar
  61. Human Rights First. (2017). Germany conflicted: The struggle between xenophobia and tolerance. New York: Human Rights First. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  62. Hunter, J. D., & Bowman, C. D. (2016). The vanishing center of American democracy. The 2016 survey of American political culture. Charlottesville, VA: Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture, University of Virginia.Google Scholar
  63. Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2016). Trump, Brexit, and the rise of populism: Economic have-nots and cultural backlash. Faculty research working paper series RWP16-0 26. Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  64. Jansen, R. S. (2015). Populist mobilization: A new theoretical approach to populism. In C. de la Torre (Ed.), The promise and perils of populism: Global perspectives (pp. 159–188). Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.Google Scholar
  65. Jensen, U. (2017). Zornpolitik. Berlin: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  66. Kaltwasser, C. R. (2013). Comparative perspectives on contemporary Western Europe, Latin America, and the United States. Oxford: The Foundation for Law, Justice and Society. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  67. Kaltwasser, C. R. (2015). Explaining the emergence of populism in Europe and the Americas. In C. de la Torre (Ed.), The promise and perils of populism: Global perspectives (pp. 189–227). Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.Google Scholar
  68. Kazin, M. (1998). The populist persuasion: An American history. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Kitschelt, H. (2018). Party systems and radical right-wing parties. In J. Rydgren (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of the radical right (pp. 166–199). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Koehler, D. (2016). Understanding deradicalization: Methods, tools and programs for countering violent extremism. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Koplow, M. J. (2017, April 16). After Erdogan’s referendum victory. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  72. Levitsky, S. (2003). Transforming labor-based parties in Latin America: Argentine Peronism in comparative perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Levitsky, S., & Roberts, K. M. (Eds.). (2013). The resurgence of the Latin American left. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Lind, J. (2018). Nationalist in a liberal order: Why populism missed Japan. Asia-Pacific Review, 25(1), 52–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lobo, S. (2017, September 20). Die AfD verstehen, ohne Verständnis zu entwickeln. Spiegel Online. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  76. Madriaza, P., & Ponsot, A.-S. (2015). Preventing radicalization: A systematic review. Montreal: International Center for the Prevention of Crime.Google Scholar
  77. McCann, B. (2018). Brazil’s new right. Dissent, 65(2), 114–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Merkel, W. (2016). Bruchlinien. Kosmopolitismus, Kommunitarismus und die Demokratie. WZB Mitteilungen, 154, 11–14.Google Scholar
  79. Michael, G. (2015). A new American populist coalition? The relationship between the Tea Party and the far right. In C. de la Torre (Ed.), The promise and perils of populism: Global perspectives (pp. 265–292). Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.Google Scholar
  80. Michel, E. (2017). Welfare politics and the radical right: The relevance of welfare politics for the radical right’s success in Western Europe. Doctoral dissertation, European University Institute, Florence.Google Scholar
  81. Mietzner, M. (2015). Reinventing Asian populism: Jokowi’s rise, democracy, and political contestation in Indonesia. Policy studies 72. Honolulu, HI: East-West Center.Google Scholar
  82. Mondon, A. (2013). The mainstreaming of the extreme right in France and Australia: A populist hegemony? Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  83. Mudde, C. (2004). The populist zeitgeist. Government and Opposition, 39(3), 541–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mudde, C., & Kaltwasser, C. R. (2013). Exclusionary vs. inclusionary populism: Comparing contemporary Europe and Latin America. Government and Opposition, 48(02), 147–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mudde, C., & Kaltwasser, C. R. (2017). Populism: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Muis, J., & Immerzeel, T. (2017). Causes and consequences of the rise of populist radical right parties and movements in Europe. Current Sociology, 65(6), 909–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Müller, J. W. (2018). Militant democracy and constitutional identity. In G. Jacobsohn & M. Schor (Eds.), Comparative constitutional theory (pp. 415–435). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Norton, M., & Ariely, D. (2011). Building a better America—One wealth quintile at a time. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(1), 9–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Parens, H. (2012). Attachment, Aggression, and the prevention of malignant prejudice. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 32(2), 171–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pareto, V. (1935 [1916]). The mind and society (Vol. II). New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company.Google Scholar
  91. Passos, P. (2018, October 5). Democracia tem aprovação recorde no Brasil. Folha de S. Paulo. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  92. Precht, R. D. (2018, April 21). Die Digitalisierung bedroht alles, was ist. Interview. Der Spiegel. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  93. Reich, W. (1933). Massenpsychologie des Faschismus. Zur Sexualökonomie der politischen Reaktion und zur proletarischen Sexualpolitik. Kopenhagen: Verlag für Sexualpolitik.Google Scholar
  94. Reiermann, Ch. (2018, July 14). Die Muster des Protests. Der Spiegel, 29, 66.Google Scholar
  95. Reuband, K. H. (2015). Wer demonstriert in Dresden für Pegida? Ergebnisse empirischer Studien, methodische Grundlagen und offene Fragen. Mitteilungen des Instituts für Parteienrecht und Parteienforschung, 21, 133–143. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  96. Richmond, M. A. (2018, October 17). Bolsonaro’s conservative revolution. Jacobin. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  97. Rifkin, J. (2004). The European dream: How Europe’s vision of the future is quietly eclipsing the American dream. New York: Tarcher/Penguin.Google Scholar
  98. Rooduijn, M., Van Der Brug, W., & De Lange, S. L. (2016). Expressing or fuelling discontent? The relationship between populist voting and political discontent. Electoral Studies, 43, 32–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Roos, G. (2017). Preface. In Technology-driven productivity improvements and the future of work: Emerging research and opportunities (pp. vii–xvi). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rydgren, J. (Ed.). (2013). Introduction: Class politics and the radical right. In J. Rydgren (Ed.), Class politics and the radical right (pp. 1–9). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  101. Samuels, D., & Zucco, C. (2014). The power of partisanship in Brazil: Evidence from survey experiments. American Journal of Political Science, 58(1), 212–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schmidt, F. (2015). Turkey’s June 7, 2015 parliamentary elections: Voters opt for change. Istanbul: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  103. Sibley, C. G., & Barlow, F. K. (Eds.). (2017). The Cambridge handbook of the psychology of prejudice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Silva, B. C. (2017). Contemporary populism: Actors, causes, and consequences across 28 democracies. Doctoral dissertation, Central European University, Budapest. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  105. SORA/ISA. (2016). Wahlanalyse: Wiederholung Stichwahl Bundespräsidentschaft 2016. Wien: SORA. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  106. Spektor, M. (2018, October 28). It’s not just the right that’s voting for Bolsonaro. It’s everyone. Foreign Policy. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  107. Spiegel Online. (2016, March 21). Fury and the AfD: Inside the revolt against Angela Merkel. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  108. Spiegel Online. (2017, September 25). Volksparteien laufen Wähler weg—AfD und FDP profitieren. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  109. Spiewak, M. (2018, September 26). Pessimismus: Was nicht in der Zeitung steht. Zeit. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  110. Starmans, C., Sheskin, M., & Bloom, P. (2017). Why people prefer unequal societies. Nature Human Behaviour, 1(4), No. 0082.Google Scholar
  111. Swank, D., & Betz, H. G. (2003). Globalization, the welfare state and right-wing populism in Western Europe. Socio-Economic Review, 1(2), 215–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Thachil, T. (2014). Elite parties and poor voters: Theory and evidence from India. American Political Science Review, 108(2), 454–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tyler, T. (2011). Procedural justice shapes evaluations of income inequality: Commentary on Norton and Ariely (2011). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(1), 15–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Vaish, A., Grossmann, T., & Woodward, A. (2008). Not all emotions are created equal: The negativity bias in social-emotional development. Psychological Bulletin, 134(3), 383–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., & De Vos, A. (2015). Sustainable careers: Introductory chapter. In A. De Vos & B. I. J. M. Van der Heijden (Eds.), Handbook of research on sustainable careers (pp. 1–19). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  116. Vehrkamp, R., & Wratil, Ch. (2017). A populist moment? Populist attitudes of voters and non-voters before the German federal election 2017. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.Google Scholar
  117. Von Mering, S., & McCarty, T. W. (2013). Introduction. In S. Von Mering & T. W. McCarty (Eds.), Right-wing radicalism today: Perspectives from Europe and the US (pp. 1–12). Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. de Vries, C., & Hoffmann, I. (2016). Fear not values. Public opinion and the populist vote in Europe. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.Google Scholar
  119. Wahl, K. (1989). Die Modernisierungsfalle. Gesellschaft, Selbstbewusstsein und Gewalt. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  120. Wahl, K. (2000). Kritik der soziologischen Vernunft. Sondierungen zu einer Tiefensoziologie. Weilerswist: Velbrück Wissenschaft.Google Scholar
  121. Wahl, K. (2005). Roots of Xenophobia and violence against migrants personality, parents, pedagogues, peers, and emotions. In D. Hoerder, Y. Hébert, & I. Schmitt (Eds.), Negotiating transcultural lives: Belongings and social capital among youth in comparative perspective (pp. 59–68). Göttingen: V&R unipress.Google Scholar
  122. Wahl, K. (2007). Vertragen oder schlagen? Biografien jugendlicher Gewalttäter als Schlüssel für eine Erziehung zur Toleranz in Familie, Kindergarten und Schule. Berlin: Cornelsen-Scriptor.Google Scholar
  123. Wahl, K. (2013). Aggression und Gewalt. Ein biologischer, psychologischer und sozialwissenschaftlicher Überblick. Heidelberg: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag.Google Scholar
  124. Wahl, K., Honig, M.-S., & Gravenhorst, L. (1982). Wissenschaftlichkeit und Interessen. Zur Herstellung subjektivitätsorientierte Sozialforschung. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  125. Wahl, K., Tramitz, Ch., & Blumtritt, J. (2001). Fremdenfeindlichkeit. Auf den Spuren extremer Emotionen. Eine interdisziplinäre Untersuchung. Opladen: Leske + Budrich.Google Scholar
  126. Wastnidge, E. (2019). Imperial grandeur and selective memory: Re-assessing Neo-Ottomanism in Turkish foreign and domestic politics. Middle East Critique. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from
  127. Widmer, T., Blaser, C., & Falk, C. (2007). Evaluating measures taken against right-wing extremism. Evaluation, 13(2), 221–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Yaniv, N. W., & Tenenboim-Weinblatt, K. (2017). Right-wing populism and beyond. In T. Aalberg, F. Esser, C. Reinemann, J. Stromback, & C. De Vreese (Eds.), Populist political communication in Europe (pp. 207–220). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  129. Zúquete, J. P. (2018). From left to right and beyond: The defense of populism. In C. de la Torre (Ed.), Routledge handbook of global populism (pp. 430–448). Routledge: Abingdon.Google Scholar
  130. Zürn, M. (2016). Jenseits der Klassenfrage. Neue Konfliktlinien zeigen sich in Europa, der Türkei und Amerika. WZB Mitteilungen, 154, 7–9.Google Scholar
  131. Zürn, M. (2018). A theory of global governance: Authority, legitimacy, and contestation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus Wahl
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychosocial Analyses and Prevention - Information System (PAPIS)MunichGermany

Personalised recommendations