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Executive Dysfunction in Subcortical Diseases

  • Alfredo ArdilaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Executive functions depend on an extensive brain circuit including not only cortical areas, but also some subcortical areas, including the basal ganglia and the thalamus. It is not surprising to find that subcortical pathologies can be associated with executive functions disturbances. Functional, as well as anatomical, connectivity between frontal cortex and striatum via the thalamus and the globus pallidus have been suggested. In this chapter, executive dysfunction in the most prototypical basal ganglia diseases—Parkinson disease and Huntington disease—are examined. It is explained that defects in a diversity of executive functioning tests in Parkinson and Huntington diseases have been documented. There is also evidence that the thalamus participates in the executive functions brain system, and it is connected with the prefrontal cortex. Consequently, it is understandable that thalamic damage is associated with disturbances in executive functions. Finally, in this chapter, executive functions impairments in subcortical vascular disease and white matter disease are examined. The general conclusion is that clinical and experimental evidence demonstrate that subcortical structures participate in the executive functions brain system, and executive disorders are associated not only with cortical but also with subcortical pathology.

Keywords

Basal ganglia Striatum Thalamus Globus pallidus Parkinson’s disease Huntington’s disease 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sechenov UniversityMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Albizu UniversityMiamiUSA

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