Advertisement

Neuropsychological Assessment of Executive Functions

  • Feggy Ostrosky ShejetEmail author
  • Asucena Lozano Gutiérrez
Chapter

Abstract

The neuropsychological assessment of the cognitive processes supported by the frontal lobes, among them the executive functions (EF), continues to be a challenge both in clinical settings and in neuropsychological research. The diversity of concepts and theoretical approaches to EF reflects the little consensus about the processes involved in the regulation of cognition, behavior and emotions, which in turn implies a difficulty in their measurement. In adults, damage to the frontal lobes conveys heterogeneous and important consequences that affect behavior and cognition, ranging from deficits of emotion regulation and social behavior, to deficits in abstract thinking and metacognition. Cognitive assessment, of both healthy and pathological populations, requires the use of objective and reliable neuropsychological instruments designed and adapted to appropriately evaluate the populations we are interested in. Moreover, appropriate normative data must be developed in order to establish an accurate clinical picture about the nature of the impairments. Therefore, it is important to have neuropsychological tests that are developed and standardized for Spanish-speaking populations. In this context, we describe two instruments: the Neuropsychological Battery of Executive Functions and Frontal Lobes, the tests included in the battery were selected and organized based on the anatomo-functional criterion and in relation to the relative lower–higher complexity of the evaluated processes, and the Neuropsychological Battery for Preschoolers that aims to evaluate the normal and pathological course of the neuropsychological development of various cognitive processes in the preschool stage, among them, EF.

Keywords

Neuropsychological assessment Executive functions Adults Spanish-speaking population Normative data 

Notes

Funding

This work was partially supported by PAPIIT UNAM (IN302016)

References

  1. Ardila, A., & Ostrosky, F. (2012). Guía para el diagnóstico Neuropsicológico. http://ineuro.cucba.udg.mx/libros/bv_guia_para_el_diagnostico_neuropsicologico.pdf.
  2. Ardila, A., Ostrosky, F., Rosselli, M., & Gómez, C. (2000). Age related cognitive decline during normal aging: The complex effect of education. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 15, 495–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49, 5–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barkley, R. A. (2012). Executive functions: What they are, how they work, and why they evolved. London: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Baron, I. S., & Anderson, P. J. (2012). Neuropsychological assessment of preschoolers. Neuropsychological Review, 22, 311–312.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-012-9221-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bechara, A., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. R. (2000). Emotion, decision making and the orbitofrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 295–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Damasio, A. R. (1998). The somatic marker hypothesis and the possible functions of the prefrontal cortex. In A. C. Roberts, T. W. Robbins, & L. Weiskrantz (Eds.), The prefrontalcortex, executive and cognitive functions (pp. 36–50). Nueva York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Diamond, A. (2006). The early development of executive functions. In E. Bialystok & F. Craik (Eds.), Lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change (pp. 70–95). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Engle, R. W. (2002). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fernández-Duque, D., Baird, J. A., & Posner, M. (2000). Executive attention and metacognitive regulation. Consciousnes and Cognition, 9, 288–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Flores, J. C., Ostrosky, F., & Lozano, A. (2014). Batería de Funciones Ejecutivas y Lóbulos Frontales BANFE. México: Manual Moderno.Google Scholar
  12. Fuster, J. (2017). Prefrontal executive functions predict and preadapt. In E. Goldberg (Ed.). Executive functions in health and disease. Academic Press.  https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-803676-1.00001.
  13. Fuster, J. M. (2002). Frontal lobe and cognitive development. Journal of Neurocitology, 31, 373–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garon, N., Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 31–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). Behavior rating inventory of executive function. Child Neuropsychology: A Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence, 6(3), 235–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Godefroy, O., Martinaud, O., Narme, P., Joseph, P. A., Mosca, C., Lhommée, E., et al. (2018). Dysexecutive disorders and their diagnosis: A position paper. Cortex, 109, 322–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goldberg, E. (2001). The executive brain, frontal lobes and the civilized mind. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Goldstein, S., Naglieri, J., Princiotta, D., & Otero, T. (2014). Introduction: A history of executive functioning as a theoretical and clinical construct. In S. Goldstein & J. Naglieri (Eds.), Handbook of executive functioning (pp. 3–12). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hackman, D. A., Farah, M. J., & Meaney, M. J. (2010). Socioeconomic status and the brain: mechanistic insights from human and animal research. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(9), 651–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hunt, A. W., Turner, G. R., Polatajko, H., Bottari, C., & Dawson, D. R. (2013). Executive function, self-regulation and attribution in acquired brain injury: A scoping review. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 23(6), 914–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kamradt, J. M., Ullsperger, J. M., & Nikolas, M. A. (2014). Executive function assessment and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Tasks versus ratings on the Barkley deficits in executive functioning scale. Psychological Assessment, 26(4), 1095–1105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Keil, K., & Kaszniak, A. W. (2002). Examining executive function in individuals with brain injury: A review. Aphasiology, 16(3), 305–335.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02687030143000654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., Bigler, E. D., & Tranel, D. (2012). Neuropsychological assessment (5th ed.). USA: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Logue, S. F., & Gould, T. J. (2014). The neural and genetic basis of executive function: Attention, cognitive flexibility, and response inhibition. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 123, 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Luria, A. R. (1986). Las funciones corticales superiores del hombre. México: Fontamara.Google Scholar
  26. Luria, A. R. (1989). El cerebro en acción. Barcelona: Fontanella.Google Scholar
  27. McKlveen, J. M., Myers, B., & Herman, J. P. (2015). The medial prefrontal cortex: coordinator of autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 27, 446–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Miller, E. K., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 67–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex frontal lobe tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Norman, D. A., & Shallice, T. (1986). Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behavior. In R. J. Davidson, G. E. Schwartz, & D. Shapiro (Eds.), Consciousness and Self-Regulation (Vol. 4, pp. 1–18)., Advances in Research and Theory New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  31. Ongur, D., Ferry, A. T., & Price, J. L. (2003). Architectonic subdivision of the human orbital and medial prefrontal cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 460, 425–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ostrosky, F., Lozano, A., & González, M. G. (2016). Batería neuropsicológica para preescolares. México: Manual Moderno.Google Scholar
  33. Overdorp, E. J., Kessels, R. P., Claassen, J. A., & Oosterman, J. M. (2016). The combined effect of neuropsychological and neuropathological deficits on instrumental activities of daily living in older adults: A systematic review. Neuropsychology Review, 26(1), 92–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Peterson, E., & Welsh, M. (2014). The development of hot and cool executive functions: Are we getting warmer? In S. Goldstein & J. A. Naglieri (Eds.), Handbook of executive functions. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  35. Schoenemann, P. T., Seehan, M. J., & Glotzer, L. D. (2005). Prefrontalwhite matter volume is disproportionately larger in humans than in other primates. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 242–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shallice, T. (2001). “Theory of mind” and the prefrontal cortex. Brain, 124, 247–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shimamura, A. P. (2000). Toward a cognitive neurosicence of metacognition. Consciousness and Cognition, 9, 313–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stuss, D. T., & Alexander, M. P. (2000). Executive functions and the frontal lobes: A conceptual view. Psychology Research, 63, 289–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stuss, D. T., & Levine, B. (2002). Adult Clinical Neuropsychology: lessons from studies of the frontal lobes. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 401–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vallesi, A. (2012). Organisation of executive functions: Hemispheric asymmetries. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 24(4), 367–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Verdejo-García, A., & Bechara, A. (2010). Neuropsychology of executive functions. Psicothema, 22(2), 227–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Welsh, M., & Peterson, E. (2014). Issues in the conceptualization and assessment of hot executive functions in childhood. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 20(2), 152–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zelazo, P. D., & Muller, U. (2002). Executive function in typical and atypical development. In U. Goswami (Ed.), Handbook of child cognitive development (pp. 445–469). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Feggy Ostrosky Shejet
    • 1
    Email author
  • Asucena Lozano Gutiérrez
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorio de Psicofisiología y Neuropsicología, Facultad de PsicologíaUniversidad Nacional Autonoma de MexicoMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations