Skip to main content

Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

  • 818 Accesses


  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma
  • MTC
  • Amyloid
  • Variants of MTC
  • Oncocytic variant of MTC
  • Hürthle cell neoplasm
  • Calcitonin
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia
  • Poorly differentiated carcinoma
  • Anaplastic carcinoma
  • Paraganglioma
  • Metastatic carcinoma

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-25066-9_10
  • Chapter length: 14 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   89.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-25066-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 10.1
Fig. 10.2
Fig. 10.3
Fig. 10.4
Fig. 10.5
Fig. 10.6
Fig. 10.7
Fig. 10.8
Fig. 10.9
Fig. 10.10

Suggested Reading

  1. Ali SZ, Cibas ES, editors. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology; definitions, criteria, and explanatory notes. 2nd ed. Cham: Springer International Publishing AG; 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Canberk S, Onenerk M, Gunes P, Sayman E, Kilicoglu G. Oncocytic variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Endocr Pathol. 2015;26:320–3.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Chang TC, Wu SL, Hsiao YL. Medullary thyroid carcinoma: pitfalls in diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology and relationship of cytomorphology to RET proto-oncogene mutations. Acta Cytol. 2005;49:477–82.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. Cibas ES, Ali SZ. The 2017 Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology. Thyroid. 2017;27:1341–6.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Dyhdalo KS, Chute DJ. Barriers to the recognition of medullary thyroid carcinoma on FNA: implications relevant to the new American Thyroid Association guidelines. Cancer Cytopathol. 2018;126:397–405.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Elisei R, Bottici V, Luchetti F, Di Coscio G, Romei C, Grasso L, et al. Impact of routine measurement of serum calcitonin on the diagnosis and outcome of medullary thyroid cancer: experience in 10,864 patients with nodular thyroid disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:163–8.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Fadda G, Rossi ED. Liquid-based cytology in fine-needle aspiration biopsies of the thyroid gland. Acta Cytol. 2011;55:389–400.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Harach HR, Bergholm U. Medullary (C cell) carcinoma of the thyroid with features of follicular oxyphilic cell tumours. Histopathology. 1988;13:645–56.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. Haugen BR, Alexander EK, Bible KC, Doherty GM, Mandel SJ, Nikiforov YE, et al. 2015 American thyroid association management guidelines for adult patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: the American thyroid association guidelines task force on thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2016;26(1):1–133.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Hoda RS. Non-gynecologic cytology on liquid-based preparations: a morphologic review of facts and artifacts. Diagn Cytopathol. 2007;35:621–34.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Hoda RS, VandenBussche C, Hoda SA. Diagnostic liquid-based cytology. New York: Springer; 2017.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Kaushal S, Iyer VK, Mathur SR, Ray R. Fine needle aspiration cytology of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid with a focus on rare variants: a review of 78 cases. Cytopathology. 2011;22:95–105.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  13. Papaparaskeva K, Nagel H, Droese M. Cytologic diagnosis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Diagn Cytopathol. 2000;22:351–8.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. Sams SB, Tompkins KD, Mayson S, Raeburn CD, Mehrotra S. Oncocytic variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma; a rare tumor with numerous diagnostic mimics by fine needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol. 2017;45:1148–52.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Seningen JL, Nassar A, Henry MR. Correlation of thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration cytology with corresponding histology at Mayo Clinic, 2001-2007: an institutional experience of 1,945 cases. Diagn Cytopathol. 2012;40:E27–32.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Suzuki A, Hirokawa M, Takada N, Higuchi M, Ito A, Yamao N, et al. Fine-needle aspiration cytology for medullary thyroid carcinoma: a single institutional experience in Japan. Endocr J. 2017;64:1099–104.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Tranchida P, Estigarribia J, Sethi S, Giorgadze T. Cytologic diagnosis of recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma with oncocytic change twenty-one years post thyroidectomy: case report & review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol. 2011;39:641–6.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. Trimboli P, Cremonini N, Ceriani L, Saggiorato E, Guidobaldi L, Romanelli F, et al. Calcitonin measurement in aspiration needle washout fluids has higher sensitivity than cytology in detecting medullary thyroid cancer: a retrospective multicentre study. Clin Endocrinol. 2014;80:135–40.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  19. Trimboli P, Treglia G, Guidobaldi L, Romanelli F, Nigri G, Valabrega S, et al. Detection rate of FNA cytology in medullary thyroid carcinoma: a meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol. 2015;82:280–5.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rana S. Hoda .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Rao, R., Scognamiglio, T., Hoda, R.S. (2020). Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. In: Hoda, R., Rao, R., Scognamiglio, T. (eds) Atlas of Thyroid Cytopathology on Liquid-Based Preparations. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-25065-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-25066-9

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)