Advertisement

Humanity and the Migration Experience Beyond Earth

  • Cameron M. SmithEmail author
Chapter
  • 295 Downloads
Part of the Space and Society book series (SPSO)

Abstract

A defining feature of animal life is that it moves. Early in life, with little knowledge of its environment, each life form is engaged in exploration. As information about its environment is accumulated by exploration, the animal may decide to remain where it is, or go elsewhere; various external ‘push’ and/or ‘pull’ factors also tend to move animal life across geographies. Repeated, cyclic movement is often termed migration, as when birds fly to distant feeding grounds for months at a time. Other life forms, in particular some aquatic species, move one-way, leaving the place where they were born to settle permanently elsewhere. Humanity is engaged in many such movements on Earth. The one most pertinent, however, to the case of space settlement is emigration, a permanent, one-way phenomenon, in the human case an intentional one. This chapter examines the emigration experience in general and proposes a four-stage model for permanent human space settlement. As in the other chapters of the book, I highlight the evolutionary aspects of our topic, identifying the main trends in animal migration and emigration so far identified, and applying, when appropriate, lessons from evolutionary biology to the prospect of human space settlement.

References

  1. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnett, H. G. (1953). Innovation: The basis of culture change. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  3. Bonte, H. V. D., et al. (2012). Costs of dispersal. Biological Reviews, 87, 290–312.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2011.00201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bordieu, F. (1977). Outline of a theory of practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bowler, D. E., & Benson, T. G. (2005). Causes and consequences of animal dispersal strategies: Relating individual behaviour to spatial dynamics. Biological Reviews, 80, 205–225.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1464793104006645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bradford, J., Schaffer, M., & Talk, D. (2014). Torpor-inducing transfer habitat for human stasis to mars. NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Final Report. Online at https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20180008683.pdf.
  7. Dingle, H., & Drake, V. A. (2007). What is migration? BioScience, 57(2), 113–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Drake, B. G. (1998). Reference Mission Version 3.0 Addendum to the Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team. NASA S/P-6107-ADD. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.Google Scholar
  9. Drake, V. A., & Gatehouse, A. G. (1995). Insect migration: Tracking resources though space and time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Drake, V. A., Gatehouse, A. G., & Farrow, R. A. (1995). Insect migration: A holistic conceptual model. In V. A. Drake & A. G. Gatehouse (Eds.), Insect migration: Tracking resources through space and time (pp. 427–457). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Fiese, B. H., et al. (2002). A review of 50 years of research on naturally occurring family routines and rituals: Cause for celebration? Journal of Family Psycghology, 16(4), 381–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fillmore, L. W. (1991). When learning a second language means losing the first. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 6, 323–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. FQEB. (2014). The full list of questions of the FQEB follows: * What is the transition from chemical kinetics to evolutionary dynamics, and can the transition from non-evolving to evolving systems be defined precisely and formally? * Are there different kinds of evolution, and is there evolution in the context of evolution itself? * What are the natural laws of evolutionary change, and can we derive a complete mathematical theory of evolutionary laws? * How does population structure affect evolutionary dynamics, and what role might coordination/cooperation play? * What are the differences between genetic and cultural evolution, and how can these differences be formalized? * What is the role of chance (stochasticity) in evolutionary dynamics? * What are the typical limits of evolvability, and how are these transcended? * Why does evolution (sometimes) lead to increasing complexity? * What are the evolutionary origins of emergence? * How does cooperation affect construction? * Can we build precise models for the evolution of cells, multi-cellular organisms, animal societies and human language? * What is the role of multi-level selection in the larger evolutionary process? See https://www.trdf.co.il/eng/kolkoreinfo.php?id=1742.
  14. Frisancho, A. R. (1993). Human adaptation and accomodation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  15. Gabora, L. (1999). Weaving, bending, patching, mending the fabric of reality: A cognitive science perspective on worldview inconsistency. Foundations of Science, 3(2), 395–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gabora, L. 2018. The making of a creative worldview. Book chapter in press, see https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.11236v1.
  17. Hornborg, A. (2005). Ethnogenesis, regional integration, and ecology in prehistoric Amazonia. Current Anthropology, 46(4), 589–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hovelsrud, G. K., Poppel, B., van Oort, B., & Reist, J. D. (2011). Arctic societies, cultures and peoples in a changing cryosphere. Ambio, 40, 1–110. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs13280-011-0219-4.
  19. Immigration Canada. (2018). Top ten problems faced by immigrants at https://www.immigroup.com/news/top-10-problems-immigrants.
  20. Lazear, E. P. (1998). Diversity and immigration. NBER Working Paper no. 6535. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  21. Lazear, E. P. (1999). Culture and language. Journal of Political Economy, 107(6), S95–S126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Levine, J. M. (2000). Biological invasions. Current Biology, 18(2), 57–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2007.11.030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Marin, F. (2017). Heritage: A Monte Carlo code to evaluate the viability of interstellar travels using a multigenerational crew. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 70, 184–195.ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Marin, F., & Beluffi, C. (2018). Computing the minimal crew for a multi-generational space journey towards Proxima Centarui b. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 71, 431–438.Google Scholar
  25. Marin, F., Beluffi, C., Taylor, R., & Grau, L. (2018). Numerical constraints on the size of generation ships: From total energy expenditure on board, annual food production and space. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 71, 382–393.ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. McShea, D. W., & Brandon, R. N. (2010). Biology’s first law: The tendency for diversity & complexity to increase in evolutionary systems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Perrault, C. (2012). The pace of cultural evolution. PLoS ONE, 7(9), e45150.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Piersma, T., Perez-Tris, J., Mouritsen, H., Bauchinger, U., & Bairlein, F. (2005). Is there a “migratory syndrome” common to all migrant birds? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1046, 282–293.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Riley, D. (2007). Educational technology and practice: Types and timescales of change. Educational Technology and Society, 10(1), 85–93.ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Sih, A., Bell, A., & Johnson, J. C. (2004). Behavioral syndromes: An ecological and evolutionary overview. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19, 373–378.Google Scholar
  31. Smith, C. M. (2018). An atlas of human prehistory. San Diego: Cognella Academic PublishingGoogle Scholar
  32. Staats, K. (2018). SIMOC: A foundational design document. See https://www.kaistaats.com/?s=simoc.
  33. Travis, J. M. J., et al. (2012). Modelling dispersal: An eco-evolutionary framework incorporating emigration, movement, settlement behaviour and the multiple costs involved. Methods in Ecology, 3(4), 628–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vernikos, J., Walter, N., Worms, J. C., & Blanc, S. (2016). THESEUS: The European research priorities for human exploration of space. Nature Microgravity, 2, 16034.  https://doi.org/10.1038/npjmgrav.2016.34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyPortland State UniversityPortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations