Advertisement

Epidemiology of Early Nutrition and Adult Health: Metabolic Adaptations and Body Composition

  • Daniel J. HoffmanEmail author
  • Alessandro Bigoni
  • Adriana Carrieri
Chapter
Part of the Healthy Ageing and Longevity book series (HAL, volume 9)

Abstract

The intrauterine period of growth is extremely important for lifelong health as growth and development of fetal tissues and organ systems occur at a very rapid pace. Any perturbation to this process, either through nutritional insufficiency or exposure to endocrine disruptors or toxins, not only interrupts or delays the growth process, but in some cases results in metabolic abnormalities that challenge adult health. In terms of early childhood nutrition and growth, a number of studies have reported that stunting is a risk factor for obesity and central adiposity. However, other studies have reported divergent findings. Regardless, it is well accepted that nutrition during early childhood through adolescence has a profound effect on healthy growth and deficits in energy or specific micronutrients have a negative impact of adult height and growth. More important, the growth pattern, such as slow or rapid growth, is now considered to be a primary factor in terms of body composition and health. This chapter will describe the relationship between poor growth in utero and early childhood as a risk factor for adult chronic diseases based on epidemiologic and clinical studies. As well, the influence of poor growth during childhood on metabolism and body composition will be explored as potential areas in which mechanisms may explain epidemiological studies.

Keywords

Early nutrition Metabolic adaptation Body composition Lifelong health Adult disease Obesity 

References

  1. Aidam B, Perez-Escamilla R, Lartey A et al (2005) Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Accra, Ghana. Eur J Clin Nutr 59:789–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antony A (2007) In utero physiology: role of folic acid in nutrient delivery and fetal development. Am J Clin Nutr 85:598S–603SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Astley S, Bledsoe J, Davies J (2016) The essential role of growth deficiency in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Adv Pediatr Res 3:9Google Scholar
  4. Barker D, Martyn C, Osmond C (1993) Growth in utero and serum cholesterol concentrations in adult life. Br Med J 307:1524–1527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bateson P, Barker D, Clutton-Brock T (2004) Developmental plasticity and human health. Nature 430:419–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bénéfice E, Garnier D, Simondon KB et al (2001) Relationship between stunting in infancy and growth and fat distribution during adolescence in Senegalese girls. Eur J Clin Nutr 55:50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cameron N, Wright MM, Griffiths PL et al (2005) Stunting at 2 years in relation to body composition at 9 years in African urban children. Obes Res 13:131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Campisi S, Cherian A, Bhutta Z (2017) World perspective on the epidemiology of stunting between 1990 and 2015. Horm Res Paediatr 88(1):70–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carter R, Jacobson J, Sokol R et al (2013) Fetal alcohol-related growth restriction from birth through young adulthood and moderating effects of maternal prepregnancy weight. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 37:452–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Charalampopoulos D, McLoughlin A, Elks CE et al (2014) Age at menarche and risks of all-cause and cardiovascular death: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 180:29–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen C, Zhao L, Ning Z et al (2018) Famine exposure in early life is associated with visceral adipose dysfunction in adult females. Eur J Nutr 1–9Google Scholar
  12. Corvalán C, Garmendia M, Jones-Smith J et al (2017) Nutrition status of children in Latin America. Obes Rev 18:7–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crookston BT, Penny ME, Alder SC et al (2010) Children who recover from early stunting and children who are not stunted demonstrate similar levels of cognition. J Nutr 140:1996–2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crookston BT, Schott W, Cueto S et al (2013) Postinfancy growth, schooling, and cognitive achievement: Young Lives. Am J Clin Nutr 98:1555–1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crowther NJ, Cameron N, Trusler J et al (2008) Influence of catch-up growth on glucose tolerance and beta-cell function in 7-year-old children: results from the birth to twenty study. Pediatrics 121:e1715–e1722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crume TL, Scherzinger A, Stamm E et al (2014) The long-term impact of intrauterine growth restriction in a diverse U.S. cohort of children: the EPOCH study. Obes Silver Spring Md 22:608–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. de Onis M, Blössner M, Borghi E (2011) Prevalence and trends of stunting among pre-school children, 1990–2020. Public Health Nutr 15(1):142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Onis M, Borghi E, Arimond M, Webb P (2018) Prevalence thresholds for wasting, overweight and stunting in children under 5 years. Public Health Nutr 9:1–5Google Scholar
  19. Ekamper P, van Poppel F, Stein A et al (2014) Independent and additive association of prenatal famine exposure and intermediary life conditions with adult mortality between age 18–63 years. Soc Sci Med 119:232–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eriksson J, Forsén T, Tuomilehto J et al (2001) Size at birth, childhood growth and obesity in adult life. J Int Assoc Study Obes 25:735–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Finer S, Iqbal MS, Lowe R et al (2016) Is famine exposure during developmental life in rural Bangladesh associated with a metabolic and epigenetic signature in young adulthood? A historical cohort study. BMJ Open 6:e011768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Fleming T, Watkins A, Velazquez M et al (2018) Origins of lifetime health around the time of conception: causes and consequences. Lancet 391:1842–1852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gigante DP, Nazmi A, Lima RC et al (2009) Epidemiology of early and late growth in height, leg and trunk length: findings from a birth cohort of Brazilian males. Eur J Clin Nutr 63:375–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gilbert SF (2000) Developmental Biology, 6th edn. Sunderland, MAGoogle Scholar
  25. Goldstein J, Norris S, Aronoff D (2017) DOHaD at the intersection of maternal immune activation and maternal metabolic stress: a scoping review. J Dev Orig Health Dis 8:273–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hanson HA, Smith KR (2013) Early origins of longevity: prenatal exposures to food shortage among early Utah pioneers. J Dev Orig Health Dis 4:170–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hanson S, Munthali R, Lundeen E et al (2018) Stunting at 24 months is not related to incidence of overweight through young adulthood in an urban south African Birth Cohort. J Nutr 148(6):967–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harvey N, Mahon P, Robinson S (2010) Different indices of fetal growth predict bone size and volumetric density at 4 years old. J Bone Miner Res 25:920–927PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Hayward A, Nenko I, Lummaa V (2015) Early-life reproduction is associated with increased mortality risk but enhanced lifetime fitness in pre-industrial humans. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 282:20143053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hoek HW, Brown AS, Susser E (1998) The Dutch famine and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Soc Psychiatr Epidemiol 33:373–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hoffman D, Sawaya A, Coward W et al (2000a) Energy expenditure of stunted and nonstunted boys and girls livingin the shantytowns of São Paulo, Brazil. Am J Clin Nutr 72:1025–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hoffman DJ, Sawaya AL, Verreschi I et al (2000b) Why are nutritionally stunted children at increased risk of obesity? Studies of metabolic rate and fat oxidation in shantytown children from São Paulo, Brazil. Am J Clin Nutr 72:702–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoffman DJ, Martins PA, Roberts SB et al (2007) Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of São Paulo, Brazil. Nutr Burbank 23:640–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoffman D, Reynolds R, Hardy D (2017) Developmental origins of health and disease: current knowledge and potential mechanisms. Nutr Rev 75:951–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Huang W, Zhou Y (2013) Effects of education on cognition at older ages: evidence from China’s great famine. Soc Sci Med 98:54–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huang C, Phillips M, Zhang Y (2013) Malnutrition in early life and adult mental health: evidence from a natural experiment. Soc Sci Med 97:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jablonka E, Raz G (2009) Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: prevalence, mechanisms, and implications for the study of heredity and evolution. Q Rev Biol 84:131–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kensara OA, Wooton SA, Phillips DIW et al (2006) Substrate-energy metabolism and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease in relation to fetal growth and adult body composition. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291:E365–E371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lee SK, Nam SY, Hoffman DJ (2015) Growth retardation at early life and metabolic adaptation among North Korean children. J Dev Orig Health Dis 6:291–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Leonard WR, Sorensen MV, Mosher MJ et al (2009) Reduced fat oxidation and obesity risks among the Buryat of Southern Siberia. Am J Hum Biol 21:664–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leunissen RWJ, Stijnen T, Hokken-Koelega ACS (2009) Influence of birth size on body composition in early adulthood: the programming factors for growth and metabolism (PROGRAM)-study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 70:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Li Y, Jaddoe VW, Qi L et al (2011) Exposure to the chinese famine in early life and the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Diabetes Care 34:1014–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ling J, Robbins L, Wen F (2016) Interventions to prevent and manage overweight or obesity in preschool children: A systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud 53:270–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lucas A, Fewtrell MS, Cole TJ (1999) Fetal origins of adult disease-the hypothesis revisited. BMJ 319:245–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mendez MA, Adair LS (1999) Severity and timing of stunting in the first two years of life affect performance on cognitive tests in late childhood. J Nutr 129:1555–1562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Meng R, Lv J, Yu C et al (2018) Prenatal famine exposure, adulthood obesity patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes. Int J Epidemiol 47(2):399–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Monteiro P, Victora C (2005) Rapid growth in infancy and childhood and obesity in later life - a systematic review. Obes Rev 6:143–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mulinare J, Cordero JF, Erickson JD et al (1988) Periconceptional use of multivitamins and the occurrence of neural tube defects. JAMA 260(21):3141–3145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Musa MG, Kagura J, Pisa PT et al (2016) Relationship between early growth and CVD risk factors in adolescents. J Dev Orig Health Dis 7:132–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ndemwa M, Wanyua S, Kaneko S et al (2017) Nutritional status and association of demographic characteristics with malnutrition among children less than 24 months in Kwale County, Kenya. Pan Afr Med J 28:ndGoogle Scholar
  51. Painter R, Roseboom T, Bossuyt P et al (2005) Adult mortality at age 57 after prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. Eur J Epidemiol 20:673–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Perng W, Hajj H, Belfort MB, Rifas-Shiman SL et al (2016) Birth size, early life weight gain, and midchildhood cardiometabolic health. J Pediatr 173:122–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Popkin BM, Richards MK, Montiero CA (1996) Stunting is associated with overweight in children of four nations that are undergoing the nutrition transition. J Nutr 126:3009–3016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Honein MA et al (2016) Zika Virus and Birth Defects-Reviewing the Evidence for Causality. N Engl J Med 374(20):1981–1987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ravelli GP, Stein ZA, Susser MW (1976) Obesity in young men after famine exposure in utero and early infancy. N Engl J Med 295:349–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ravelli AC, van der Meulen JH, Michels RP et al (1998) Glucose tolerance in adults after prenatal exposure to famine. Lancet 351:173–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Roseboom T, Meulen J, Osmond C et al (2001) Adult survival after prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine 1944-45. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 15:220–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sahay M, Sahay R (2012) Rickets-vitamin D deficiency and dependency. Indian J Endocr Metab 16:164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Said-Mohamed R, Bernard J, Ndzana AC, Pasquet P, Johannsen D (2012) Is Overweight in Stunted Preschool Children in Cameroon Related to Reductions in Fat Oxidation, Resting Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity?. PLoS ONE 7(6):e39007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Salgin B, Norris SA, Prentice P et al (2015) Even transient rapid infancy weight gain is associated with higher BMI in young adults and earlier menarche. Int J Obes 39:939–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Saxton K, Falconi A, Goldman-Mellor S et al (2012) No evidence of programmed late-life mortality in the Finnish famine cohort. J Dev Orig Hlth Dis 4:30–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schroeder DG, Martorell R (1999) Fatness and body mass index from birth to young adulthood in a rural Guatemalan population. Am J Clin Nutr 70:137S–144SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schroeder DG, Martorell R, Flores R (1999) Infant and child growth and fatness and fat distribution in Guatemalan adults. Am J Epidemiol 149:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shi Z, Zhang C, Zhou M et al (2013) Exposure to the Chinese famine in early life and the risk of anaemia in adulthood. BMC Public Health 13:904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sokolovic N, Selvam S, Srinivasan K et al (2014) Catch-up growth does not associate with cognitive development in Indian school-age children. Eur J Clin Nutr 68:14–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Song S (2009) Does famine have a long-term effect on cohort mortality? Evidence from the 1959–1961 great leap forward famine in China. J Biosoc Sci 41:469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. St Clair D, Xu M, Wang P et al (2005) Rates of adult schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to the Chinese famine of 1959-1961. JAMA 294:557–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stein A, Zybert P, van der Pal-de Bruin K et al (2006) Exposure to famine during gestation, size at birth, and blood pressure at age 59 y: evidence from the Dutch Famine. Eur J Epidemiol 21:759–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tain Y, Hsu C (2017a) Interplay between Oxidative Stress and Nutrient Sensing Signaling in the Developmental Origins of Cardiovascular Disease. Int J Mol Sci 18:E841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tain Y, Hsu C (2017b) Developmental Origins of Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Focus on Early Life? Int J Mol Sci 18:E381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tain Y, Huang L, Hsu C (2017) Developmental Programming of Adult Disease: Reprogramming by Melatonin? Int J Mol Sci 18:E426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tanner S, Leonard WR, Reyes-García V et al (2014) The consequences of linear growth stunting: influence on body composition among youth in the Bolivian Amazon. Am J Phys Anthropol 153:92–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. United Nations (2018) Global Report on Food Crises: Food Security Information Network. n.dGoogle Scholar
  74. Veenendaal M, Painter R, Rooij S (2013) Transgenerational effects of prenatal exposure to the 1944–45 Dutch famine. BJOG 120:548–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vidulich L, Norris SA, Cameron N et al (2007) Infant programming of bone size and bone mass in 10-year-old black and white South African children. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 21:354–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wang N, Wang X, Han B (2015) Is Exposure to famine in childhood and economic development in adulthood associated with diabetes? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100:4514–4523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wang J, Li Y, Han X et al (2016) Exposure to the Chinese famine in childhood increases type 2 diabetes risk in adults. J Nutr 146:2289–2295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Weigel M, Armijos R, Racines M et al (2018) Food Insecurity Is Associated with undernutrition but not overnutrition in Ecuadorian women from low-income urban neighborhoods. J Environ Public Health n.dGoogle Scholar
  79. Wells J, Devakumar D, Manandhar D et al (2018) Associations of stunting at 2 years with body composition and blood pressure at 8 years of age: longitudinal cohort analysis from lowland Nepal. Eur J Clin Nutr n.dGoogle Scholar
  80. World Health Organization (2018) Levels and trends in child malnutrition n.dGoogle Scholar
  81. Wren R, Blume H, Mazariegos M et al (1997) Body composition, resting metabolic rate, and energy requirements of short- and normal-stature, low-income Guatemalan children. Am J Clin Nutr 66:406–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Yokoo E, Pereira R, Veiga G et al (2018) Proposta metodológica para o módulo de consumo alimentar pessoal na pesquisa brasileira de orçamentos familiares n.dGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel J. Hoffman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alessandro Bigoni
    • 2
  • Adriana Carrieri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nutritional Sciences, Program in International NutritionCenter for Childhood Nutrition Education and Research, New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition, and Health; Rutgers, the State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of São Paulo School of Public HealthSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations