Continuous Authentication Using Mouse Clickstream Data Analysis

  • Sultan AlmalkiEmail author
  • Prosenjit ChatterjeeEmail author
  • Kaushik RoyEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11637)


Biometrics is used to authenticate an individual based on physiological or behavioral traits. Mouse dynamics is an example of a behavioral biometric that can be used to perform continuous authentication as protection against security breaches. Recent research on mouse dynamics has shown promising results in identifying users; however, it has not yet reached an acceptable level of accuracy. In this paper, an empirical evaluation of different classification techniques is conducted on a mouse dynamics dataset, the Balabit Mouse Challenge dataset. User identification is carried out using three mouse actions: mouse move, point and click, and drag and drop. Verification and authentication methods are conducted using three machine-learning classifiers: the Decision Tree classifier, the K-Nearest Neighbors classifier, and the Random Forest classifier. The results show that the three classifiers can distinguish between a genuine user and an impostor with a relatively high degree of accuracy. In the verification mode, all the classifiers achieve a perfect accuracy of 100%. In authentication mode, all three classifiers achieved the highest accuracy (ACC) and Area Under Curve (AUC) from scenario B using the point and click action data: (Decision Tree - ACC: 87.6%, AUC: 90.3%), (K-Nearest Neighbors - ACC: 99.3%, AUC: 99.9%), and (Random Forest - ACC: 89.9%, AUC: 92.5%).


Mouse dynamics Biometric Continuous authentication Behavioral biometric Machine learning 



This research is partially supported by the Army Research Office (Contract No. W911NF-15-1-0524).


  1. 1.
    Pisani, P.H., Lorena, A.C., de Carvalho, A.C.: Adaptive biometric systems using ensembles. IEEE Intell. Syst. 33(2), 19–28 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hameed, S.M., Hobi, M.M.: User authentication based on keystroke dynamics using backpropagation network. Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Sci. 3(4), 35–40 (2012)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gorad, B.J., Kodavade, D.V.: User identity verification using mouse signature. IOSR J. Comput. Eng. (IOSR-JCE) 12(4), 33–36 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shen, C., Cai, Z., Guan, X., Du, Y., Maxion, R.A.: User authentication through mouse dynamics. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 8(1), 16–30 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fülöp, Á., Kovács, L., Kurics, T., Windhager-Pokol, E.: Balabit Mouse Dynamics Challenge data set (2016).
  6. 6.
    Antal, M., Egyed-Zsigmond, E.: Intrusion detection using mouse dynamics. arXiv preprint arXiv:1810.04668 (2018)
  7. 7.
    Nakkabi, Y., Traoré, I., Ahmed, A.A.E.: Improving mouse dynamics biometric performance using variance reduction via extractors with separate features. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.-Part A: Syst. Hum. 40(6), 1345–1353 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Feher, C., Elovici, Y., Moskovitch, R., Rokach, L., Schclar, A.: User identity verification via mouse dynamics. Inf. Sci. 201, 19–36 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gamboa, H., Fred, A.: A behavioral biometric system based on human-computer interaction. Biom. Technol. Hum. Identif. 5404, 381–393 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shen, C., Cai, Z., Guan, X.: Continuous authentication for mouse dynamics: a pattern-growth approach. In: 2012 42nd Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), pp. 1–12, June 2012Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schulz, D. A.: Mouse curve biometrics. In: 2006 Biometrics Symposium: Special Session on Research at the Biometric Consortium Conference, pp. 1–6, September 2006Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bours, P., Fullu, C.J.: A login system using mouse dynamics. In: Fifth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, IIH-MSP 2009, pp. 1072–1077, September 2009Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hashia, S., Pollett, C., Stamp, M.: On using mouse movements as a biometric. Proceeding Int. Conf. Comput. Sci. Its Appl. 1, 5 (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Luzbashev, V., Filippov, A.I., Kogos, Konstantin, A.G.: Continuous user authentication in mobile phone browser based on gesture characteristics, pp. 90–95 (2018).
  15. 15.
    Jovic, A., Brkic, K., Bogunovic, N.: An overview of free software tools for general data mining. In: 2014 37th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO), pp. 1112–1117, May 2014Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Salman, O.A., Hameed, S.M.: Using mouse dynamics for continuous user authentication. In: Proceedings of the Future Technologies Conference, November, pp. 776–787 (2018)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceNorth Carolina A&T State UniversityGreensboroUSA

Personalised recommendations