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Reformulation of Foods for Weight Loss: A Focus on Carbohydrates and Fats

  • Pariyarath S. ThondreEmail author
  • Miriam E. Clegg
Chapter

Abstract

The Health Survey for England 2016 shows that the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing with 27% of adults being obese and 40% of men and 30% of women were overweight. As half of the UK population is expected to be obese by 2050, reformulation of food products can play a significant role in production of healthier foods with low energy density that can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Fat is the most energy-dense nutrient; hence it is a key area of reformulation for weight loss. The focus for reformulation in terms of fat is often on reducing saturated fat, but for weight loss overall fat reduction is the most important. This can be achieved through fat replacement products or altering the type of fats added to products to make them more satiating. Food reformulation in carbohydrate foods mainly involves reducing sugar and increasing fibre content. Considering that the current UK population has a high intake of sugars and low intake of fibre, reformulation strategies using bulk and intense sweeteners (ISs) as well as various dietary fibre ingredients are a viable way to have a positive influence on public health. The current chapter focuses on how carbohydrate and fat in food products can be reformulated to promote satiety and weight loss.

Keywords

Body weight Lipid Sugar Fibre Fatty acid 

Abbreviations

AOAC

Association of Official Agricultural Chemists

ASs

Artificial sweeteners

BMI

Body mass index

BSs

Bulk sweeteners

CCK

Cholecystokinin

DAG

Diacylglycerol

EE

Energy Expenditure

EFSA

European Food Safety Authority

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

GRAS

Generally recognized as safe

ISs

Intense sweeteners

LCS

Low-calorie sweeteners

LCT

Long-chain triglyceride

MCFA

Medium chain fatty acids

MCT

Medium chain triglycerides

MLCT

Medium-long-chain triglycerides

NHS

National Health Service

NMES

Non-milk extrinsic sugars

NNS

Non-nutritive sweeteners

PP

Pancreatic polypeptide

RCTs

Randomized controlled trials

RS

Resistant starch

SACN

Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition

SPL

Small particle lipid

SSB

Sugar-sweetened beverage

TAG

Triacylglycerol

WHO

World Health Organization

Notes

Acknowledgement

PST would like to thank Sathianarayanan S for his help with referencing.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oxford Brookes Centre for Nutrition and Health, Department of Sport, Health Sciences and Social Work, Faculty of Health and Life SciencesOxford Brookes UniversityHeadington, OxfordUK
  2. 2.Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food and Nutritional SciencesUniversity of Reading, WhiteknightsReadingUK

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