Reformulating Meat Products for Improving Nutrition and Health

  • Ashim K. Biswas


Recent consumers’ demand for health-oriented meat products has led to the development of reformulated meat products using naturally occurring compounds. Reformulation of meat products can be best practised during preparation time. However, the current reformulation strategies of meat products can be achieved by reduction of fat content, modification of fatty acid profile, reduction of cholesterol, reduction of sodium content, nitrite/nitrate as well as calories, and also incorporation of functional ingredients, including use of dietary fibres, polysaccharides, natural antioxidants and antimicrobials, essential vitamins and minerals, prebiotics, probiotic, synbiotics and other fermented ingredients. This strategy actually leads to the development of healthier meat products with the concurrent improvement of physiological functions of human. The beneficial effects of these compounds on human health are due to one or many factors such as antioxidant activity, chemomodulatory activity, gut acting activity, altering serum lipid profiles like decreasing LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, increasing HDL cholesterol and so on. Reduction of some specific unhealthy compounds like cholesterol, fat, sodium, nitrites and even lowering of calorie content could help in reduction of obesity, antihypertensive activity, cardioprotective property, anti-carcinogenic activity and so on. Functional compounds, especially antihypertensive peptides, opioid peptides, antioxidative peptides can also be generated from meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging. The use of these ingredients in meat product reformulation offers the processors an opportunity to improve the nutritional and health qualities of their products.


Reformulation Heath foods Functional meat products Dietary fibres Natural antioxidants 


  1. Ansorena, D., & Astiasaran, I. (2004). The use of linseed oil improves nutritional quality of the lipid fraction of dry-fermented sausages. Food Chemistry, 87, 69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arihara, K. (2004). Functional foods. In W. K. Jensen, C. Devine, & M. Dikeman (Eds.), Encyclopedia of meat sciences (pp. 492–499). Oxford: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Backers, T., & Noll, B. (2001). Safe plant-based ingredients for meat processing: Dietary fibres and lupine protein. Food Marketing & Technology, 15, 12–15.Google Scholar
  4. Baublits, R. T., Pohlman, F. W., Brown, A. H., et al. (2007). Injection of conjugated linoleic acid into beef strip loins. Meat Science, 75, 84–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhosale, S. S., Biswas, A. K., Sahoo, J., et al. (2011a). Quality evaluation of functional chicken nuggets incorporated with ground carrot and mashed sweet potato. Food Science and Technology International, 17, 233–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhosale, S. S., Biswas, A. K., Sahoo, J., et al. (2011b). Effect of carrot and sweet potato on the stability of chicken nuggets during refrigeration storage. Journal of Meat Science, 7, 17–22.Google Scholar
  7. Biswas, A. K., Kondaiah, N. (2014). Meat science and technology (pp. 1–286). Published by Jaya Pub House, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095. (ISBN No. 978-93-8247-54-7).Google Scholar
  8. Biswas, A. K., Sahoo, J., & Chatli, M. K. (2011a). A simple UV-Vis spectrophotometric method for determination of β-carotene content in raw carrot, sweet potato and supplemented chicken meat nuggets. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 44, 1809–1813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Biswas, A. K., Kumar, V., Bhosle, S., et al. (2011b). Dietary fibres as functional ingredients in meat products and their role in human health. International Journal of Livestock Production, 2, 45–54.Google Scholar
  10. Biswas, A. K., Chatli, M. K., Sahoo, J., et al. (2012a). Development of low-fat, low-sodium functional chicken meat patties with the incorporation of carrageenan and broken wheat (dalia). Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 47, 372–376.Google Scholar
  11. Biswas, A. K., Chatli, M. K., Sahoo, J., & Singh, J. (2012b). Storage stability of chicken meat patties, balls and nuggets incorporated with eugenol and chitosan at refrigeration temperature (4±1°C) under aerobic packaging condition. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 47, 348–356.Google Scholar
  12. Biswas, A. K., Chatli, M. K., Sahoo, J., Singh, J., & Kaur, R. (2012c). Development low-fat low-sodium functional chicken meat patties with the incorporation of carrageenan and broken wheat. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 47, 372–376.Google Scholar
  13. Biswas, A. K., Beura, C. K., & Sachdev, A. K. (2014). A comparative study of bioactive compounds from apple peels and aloe vera gel and their effect on colour and oxidative stability of Turkey meat. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 84, 565–569.Google Scholar
  14. Biswas, A. K., Beura, C. K., Yadav, A. S., et al. (2015). Influence of novel bioactive compounds from selected fruit by-products and plant materials on the quality and storability of microwave-assisted cooked poultry meat wafer during ambient temperature storage. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 62, 727–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Biswas, A. K., Chatli, M. K., & Sahoo, J. (2016a). Development of functional chicken meat balls with the incorporation cereal fibres and honey. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 51(2), 196–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Biswas, A. K., Chatli, M. K., & Sahoo, J. (2016b). Development of functional chicken nuggets with the incorporation of broken wheat and carrageenan. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 51(1), 94–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Biswas, A. K., Beura, C. K., & Sagar, M. P. (2016c). Effect of different cooking methods on retention of antioxidant activity of bioactive compounds of fox nut (Euryale ferox) seeds incorporated in chicken meat bites. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 51(1), 88–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bloukas, J. G., Paneras, E. D., & Fournitzis, G. C. (1997). Effect of replacing pork back fat with olive oil on processing and quality characteristics of fermented sausages. Meat Science, 45, 133–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boccio, J. R., Zubillaga, M. B., Caro, R. A., Gotelli, C. A., & Weill, R. (1997). A new procedure for fortify fliud milk and dairy products with high bioavailable ferrous sulphate. Nutrition Reviews, 55, 240–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carroll, K. K. (1991). Review of clinical studies on cholesterol-lowering response to soy protein. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 91, 820–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chae, S. H., Keeton, J. T., & Smith, S. B. (2004). Conjugated linoleic acid reduces lipid oxidation in aerobically stored, cooked ground beef patties. Journal of Food Science, 69, 306–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chizzolini, R., Novelli, E., & Zanardi, E. (1998). Oxidation in traditional Mediterranean meat products. Meat Science, 49, S87–S99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cofrades, S., Guerra, M. A., Carballo, J., Fernandez-Martın, F., & Jimenez-Colmenero, F. (2000). Plasma protein and soy fibre content effect on bologna sausage properties as influenced by fat level. Journal of Food Science, 65, 281–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Das, S., Der, P., Raychaudhuri, U., Maulik, N., & Das, D. K. (2006). The effect of Euryale ferox (Makhana), an herb of aquatic origin, on myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 289, 55–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Datar, I., & Betti, M. (2010). Possibilities for an in vitro meat production system. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 11, 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Desmond, E. (2007). Reducing salt in meat and poultry products. In D. Kilcast & F. Angus (Eds.), (pp. 233–255). Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  27. Desmond, E., & Troy, D. (2004). Nutrient claims on packaging. In W. K. Jensen, C. Devine, & M. Dikeman (Eds.), Encyclopedia of meat science (Vol. II, pp. 903–910). Oxford: Elsevier Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Devatkal, S., Mendiratta, S. K., & Kondaiah, N. (2004). Quality characteristics of loaves from buffalo meat, liver and vegetables. Meat Science, 67, 377–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dionysius, D. A., Grieve, P. A., & Milne, J. M. (1993). Forms of lactoferrin: Their antibacterial effect on Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Journal of Dairy Science, 76, 2597–2606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Eberhardt, M. V., Lee, C. Y., & Liu, R. H. (2000). Nutrition-antioxidant activity of freshapples. Nature, 405, 903–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fasseas, M. K., Mountzouris, K. C., Tarantilis, P. A., et al. (2008). Antioxidant activity in meat treated with oregano and sage essential oils. Food Chemistry, 106, 1188–1194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fernandez-Lopez, J., Fernendez-Gines, J. M., Aleson-Carbonell, L., et al. (2004). Applications of functional citrus byproducts to meat products. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 15, 176–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gadaga, T. H., Mutukumira, A. N., Narvhus, J. A., & Feresu, S. B. (1999). A review of traditional fermented foods and beverages of Zimbabwe. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 53, 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garcia-Iñiguez, C., Larequi, E., Rehecho, S., et al. (2010). Selenium, iodine, ω-3 PUFA and natural antioxidant form Melissa officialis L.: A combination of components for healthier dry fermented sausage formulation. Meat Science, 85, 274–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Garg, M. L., Wood, L. G., Singh, H., & Moughan, P. J. (2006). Means of delivering recommended levels of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human diets. Journal of Food Science, 71, R66–R71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gaysinsky, S., Davidson, P. M., McClements, D. J., & Weiss, J. (2008). Formulation and characterization of phytophenol-carrying microemulsions. Food Biophysics, 3, 54–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gibson, G. R., & Roberfroid, M. B. (1995). Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: Introducing the concept of prebiotics. The Journal of Nutrition, 125, 1401–1412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gnanasambandam, R., & Zayas, J. F. (1992). Functionality of wheat germ protein in comminuted meat products as compared with corn germ and soy proteins. Journal of Food Science, 57, 829–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Govaris, A., Solomakos, N., Pexara, A., & Chatsopoulou, P. S. (2010). The antimicrobial effect of oregano essential oil, nisin and their combination against Salmonella Enteritidis in minced sheep meat during refrigerated storage. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 137, 175–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huisman, M., Fransen, C., Kamerling, J., Vilegenthart, J., Schols, H., & Voragen, A. (2001). The CDTA soluble pectic substances from soy meal are composed of rhamnogalactoronan and xylogalacturonan but nothomogalaturonan. Biopolymers, 58, 279–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jahanian, R., Moghaddam, H. N., & Rezaeil, A. (2008). Improved broiler chick performance by dietary supplementation of organic zinc sources. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 21, 1348–1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jahreis, G., Vogelsang, H., Kiessling, G., et al. (2002). Influence of probiotic sausage (Lactobacillus paracasei) on blood lipids and immunological parameters of healthy volunteers. Food Research International, 35, 133–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jakszyn, P., & Gonzalez, C. A. (2006). Nitrosamine and related food intake and gastric and oesophageal cancer risk: A systematic review of the epidemiological evidence. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 12(27), 4296–4303.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jimenez-Colmenero, F. (2000). Relevant factors in strategies for fat reduction in meat products. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 11, 56–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jimenez-Colmenero (2005). Technological strategies for component optimization for the development of functional meat products. In F. SanchezMuniz, F. Jimenez Colmenero, & B. Olmidilla (Eds.), Derivados carnicos funcionales: Estrategias and perspectivas (pp. 65–76). Madrid, Spain: Fedaration of European Nutritional Society.Google Scholar
  46. Jones, J. M. (2000). Dietary advice in North America: The good, the bad and the unheeded. In B. V. McCleary & L. Prosky (Eds.), Proceedings of 1st International Conference Dietary Fibre (p. 30). Dublin.Google Scholar
  47. Joo, S. T., Lee, J. I., Hah, K. H., et al. (2000). Effect of conjugated linoleic acid additives on quality characteristics of pork patties. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 32, 62–68.Google Scholar
  48. Keeton, J. T. (1994). Low-fat meat products. Technological problems with processing. Meat Science, 36, 261–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kim, J. S., Godber, J. S., & Prinaywiwatkul, W. (2000). Restructured beef roasts containing rice bran oil and fibre influences cholesterol oxidation and nutritional profile. Journal of Muscle Foods, 11, 111–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Koksel, H., Ryu, G. H., Basman, A., et al. (2004). Effects of extrusion variables on the properties of waxy hull less barley extrudates. Nahrung-Food, 48, 19–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kumar, V., Biswas, A. K., Chatli, M. K., & Sahoo, J. (2011). Effect of banana and soybean hull flours on vacuum packaged chicken nuggets during refrigeration storage. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46, 122–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lai, L. S., Liu, Y. L., & Lin, P. H. (2003). Rheological/textural properties of starch and crude hsiantsao leaf gum mixed systems. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 83, 1051–1058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lai, L. X., Kang, J. X., Li, R. F., et al. (2006). Generation of cloned transgenic pigs rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Nature Biotechnology, 24, 435–436.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lee, H. P., Gourley, L., Duffy, S. W., et al. (1991). Dietary effects on breast-cancer risk in Singapore. Lancet, 337, 1197–1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lee, B. J., Hendricks, D. G., & Cornforth, D. P. (1998). Effect of sodium phytate, sodium pyrophosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate on physico-chemical characteristics of restructured beef. Meat Science, 50, 273–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Luruena-Martinez, M. A., Vivar-Quintana, A. M., & Revilla, I. (2004). Effect of locust bean/xanthan gum addition and replacement of pork fat with olive oil on the quality characteristics of low-fat frankfurters. Meat Science, 68, 383–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lysionek, A. E., Zubillaga, M. B., Salguerio, M. J., et al. (2002). Bioavailability of microencapsulated ferrous sulphate in powdered milk produced from fortified fliud milk: A prophylactic study in rats. Nutrition, 18, 279–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mansour, E. H., & Khalil, A. H. (1997). Characteristics of low fat beef burgersas influenced by various types of wheat fibres. Food Research International, 30, 199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Marlett, J. A., & Slavin, J. L. (1997). Position of the American Dietetic Association: Health implications of dietary fibre. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 97, 1157–1159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McCann, K. B., Shiellb, B. J., Michalskib, W. P., et al. (2005). Isolation and characterization of antibacterial peptides derived from the f (164–207) region of bovine aS2-casein. International Dairy Journal, 15, 133–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McClements, D. J., & Decker, E. A. (2008). Lipids. In S. Damodaran, K. L. Parkin, & O. R. Fennema (Eds.), (pp. 155–216). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  62. McFarland, L. V., Elmer, G. W., & McFarland, M. (2006). Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of acute pediatric diarrhea. International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, 1, 63–76.Google Scholar
  63. Muchuweti, M., Kativu, E., Ch, M., et al. (2007). Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of some spices. American Journal of Food Technology, 2, 414–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Naveena, B. M., Sen, A. R., Kingsly, R. P., et al. (2008). Antioxidant activity of pomegranate rind powder extract in cooked chicken patties. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 43, 1807–1812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Necas, J., & Bartosikova, L. (2013). Carrageenan: A review. Veterinarni Medicina, 58(4), 187–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ntzimani, A. G., Giatrakou, V. I., & Savvaidis, I. N. (2010). Combined natural antimicrobial treatment (EDTA, lysozyme, rosemary and oregano oil) on semi cooked coated chicken meat stored in vacuum packages at 4C: Microbiological and sensory evaluation. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 11, 187–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. O’Neill, M., Albersheim, P., & Darvill, A. (1990). The pectic polysaccharides of primary cell wall. In D. M. Dey (Ed.), Methods in plant biochemistry (Vol. 2, pp. 415–441). London: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Olmedilla-Alonso, B., Granado-Lorencio, F., Herrero-Barbudo, C., & Blanco-Navarro, I. (2006). Nutritional approach for designing meat-based functional food products with nuts. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46, 537–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Olmedilla-Alonso, B., Jimenez-Colmenero, F., & Sanchez-Muniz, J. (2013). Development and assessment of healthy properties of meat and meat products designed as functional foods. Meat Science, 95, 919–930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pelser, W. M., Linssen, J. P. H., Legger, A., & Houben, J. H. (2007). Lipid oxidation in n-3 fatty acid enriched Dutch style fermented sausages. Meat Science, 75, 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Peter, P. P. (2017). New aspects of meat quality: From genes to ethics (p. 472). Sawston: Woodhead Publishing.Google Scholar
  72. Pizzocaro, F., Senesi, E., Veronese, P., & Gasparoli, A. (1998). Mechanically deboned poultry meat hamburgers: II. Protective and antioxidant effect of the carrot and spinach tissues during frozen storage. Industrie Alimentari, 37, 710–720.Google Scholar
  73. Playne, M. J., Bennett, L. E., & Smithers, G. W. (2003). Functional dairy foods and ingredients. Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 58, 242–263.Google Scholar
  74. Pogorzelska-Nowicka, E., Atanasov, A. G., Horbanczuk, J., & Wierzbicka, A. (2018). Bioactive compounds in functional meat products. Molecules, 2018(23), 307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Potter, S. M. (1998). Soy protein and cardiovascular disease: The impact of bioactive component in soy. Nutrition Reviews, 56, 231–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pszczola, D. E. (1998). Addressing functional problems in fortified foods. Food Technology, 52, 38–46.Google Scholar
  77. Rastall, R. (2000). Enhancing the functionality of prebiotics and probiotics. In T. Mattila-Sandholm & M. Saarela (Eds.), (pp. 301–315). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  78. Riaz, M., & Mehmood, K. T. (2012). Selenium in human health and disease: A review. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 26, 120–133.Google Scholar
  79. Sadler, M. J. (2004). Meat alternatives-market developments and health benefits. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 15, 250–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sahoo, J., Chatli, M., Biswas, A. K. (2013). Functional poultry meat foods: Concept, processing and preservation technology, limitations and scope. In Proceedings of XXX Conference & National Symposium of IPSA22-23 November, 2013 (pp. 103–117). Izatnagar, Bareilly: CARI.Google Scholar
  81. Sameshima, T., Magome, C., Takeshita, K., et al. (1998). Effect of intestinal Lactobacillus starter cultures on the behaviour of Staphylococcus aureus in fermented sausage. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 41, 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sanchez-Escalante, A., Torrescano, G., Djenane, D., et al. (2003). Combined effect of modified atmosphere packaging and addition of lycopene rich tomato pulp, oregano and ascorbic acid and their mixtures on the stability of beef patties. Food Science and Technology International, 9, 77–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schneeman, B. O. (1999). Fibre, inulin and oligofructose: Similarities and differences. The Journal of Nutrition, 129, 1424S–1427S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sebranek, J. G., & Bacus, J. N. (2007). Cured meat products without direct addition of nitrate and nitrite: What are the issues? Meat Science, 77, 136–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Serrano, A., Cofrades, S., Ruiz Cappillas, C., et al. (2005). Nutritional profile of restructured beef steak with added walnuts. Meat Science, 70, 647–654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Shuqin, X., & Shiying, X. (2005). Ferrous sulphate liposome preparation, stability and application in fluid milk. Food Research International, 38, 289–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sirtori, C. R., Evan, R., & Lovati, M. R. (1993). Soybean protein diet and plasma cholesterol: From therapy to molecular mechanisms. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 676, 188–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sofos, J. N. (2008). Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century. Meat Science, 78, 3–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Uicich, R., Pizarro, F., Almeida, C., et al. (1999). Bioavailability of microencapsulated ferrous sulphate in fluid cow milk: Studies on human beings. Nutrition Research, 19, 893–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tungland, B. C., & Meyer, D. (2002). Non-digestible oligo- and polysaccharides (Dietary Fibre): Their physiology and role in human health and food. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 3, 90–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. van Buren, J. (1979). The chemistry of texture in fruit and vegetables. Journal of Texture Studies, 10, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. WHO. (2003). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic disease, Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  93. Xiong, Y. L., Agyare, K. K., & Addo, K. (2008). Hydrolyzed wheat gluten suppresses transglutaminase mediated gelation but improves emulsification of pork myofibrillar protein. Meat Science, 80, 535–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Xu, S., Boylston, T. D., & Glatz, B. A. (2005). Conjugated linoleic acid content and organoleptic attributes of fermented milk products produced with probiotic bacteria. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 9064–9072.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yilmaz, I., Simsek, O., & Isikli, M. (2002). Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice and sunflower oil. Meat Science, 62, 253–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yosef, I., Kiro, R., Molshanski-Mor, S., et al. (2014). Different approaches for using bacteriophages against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bacteriophage, 4, e28491–e28494.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhang, L., & Zhou, J. L. K. (2010). Chelating and radical scavenging activities of soyprotein hydrolysates prepared from microbial proteases and their effect on meatlipid peroxidation. Bioresource Technology, 101, 2084–2089.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashim K. Biswas
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Post-Harvest TechnologyICAR-Central Avian Research InstituteBareillyIndia

Personalised recommendations