Reformulating Bread to Enhance Health Benefits Using Phytochemicals and Through Strategic Structuring

  • Jing Lin
  • Jing Gao
  • Weibiao ZhouEmail author


Foods that provide health benefits beyond essential nutrients are increasing in popularity due to consumers’ interest in personal health. This chapter covers the reformulation of bakery products, including both western type of baked bread and oriental type of steamed bread, with natural polyphenols and through manipulating the microstructure of bread to reduce its glycemic index (GI). Scientific studies on this topic have covered three main research topics: bread quality, sensory properties, and nutritional properties. Besides using functional ingredients to improve the health attribute of bread, food structure has been recently taken as another important factor in designing healthier bread products.


Bread Catechins Anthocyanins Quercetin Food structure 


  1. Ananingsih, V. K., & Zhou, W. (2011). Effects of green tea extract on large-deformation rheological properties of steamed bread dough and some quality attributes of steamed bread. 11th International Congress on Engineering and Food “Food Process Engineering in a Changing World”. ISSN 978-960-89789-3-5.Google Scholar
  2. Ananingsih, V., Gao, J., & Zhou, W. (2013). Impact of green tea extract and fungal alpha-amylase on dough proofing and steaming. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(12), 3400–3411. Scholar
  3. Belton, P. S. (1999). Mini review: on the elasticity of wheat gluten. (2), 103-107. Journal of Cereal Science, 29(1), 477–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen, Z.-Y., Zhu, Q. Y., Tsang, D., & Huang, Y. (2001). Degradation of green tea catechins in tea drinks. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(1), 477–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chun, O. K., Chung, S. J., & Song, W. O. (2007). Estimated dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of US adults. The Journal of Nutrition, 137(5), 1244–1252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fardet, A., Leenhardt, F., Lioger, D., Scalbert, A., & Remesy, C. (2006). Parameters controlling the glycaemic response to breads. Nutrition Research Reviews, 19, 18–25.Google Scholar
  7. Gao, J., Wong, J.X., Lim, J.C.-S., Henry, J., &Zhou, W. (2015). Influence of bread structure on human oral processing. Journal of Food Engineering, 167, 147–155.Google Scholar
  8. Goh, R., Gao, J., Ananingsih, V. K., Ranawana, V., Henry, C. J., & Zhou, W. (2015). Green tea catechins reduced the glycaemic potential of bread: An in vitro digestibility study. Food Chemistry, 180(0), 203–210. Scholar
  9. Khan, N., & Mukhtar, H. (2013). Tea and health: studies in humans. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 19(34), 6141–6147.Google Scholar
  10. Konczak, I., & Zhang, W. (2004). Anthocyanins—more than nature’s colours. BioMed Research International, 2004(5), 239–240.Google Scholar
  11. Lau, E., Soong, Y. Y., Zhou, W. & Henry, J. (2015). Can bread processing conditions alter glycaemic response? Food Chemistry, 173, 250–256.Google Scholar
  12. Lee, J. H. (2010). Identification and quantification of anthocyanins from the grains of black rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. Food Science and Biotechnology, 19(2), 391–397. Scholar
  13. Li, X., Zheng, T., Sang, S., & Lv, L. (2014). Quercetin inhibits advanced glycation end product formation by trapping methylglyoxal and glyoxal. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(50), 12152–12158. Scholar
  14. Lin, J., & Zhou, W. (2018). Role of quercetin in the physicochemical properties, antioxidant and antiglycation activities of bread. Journal of Functional Foods, 40, 299–306. Scholar
  15. Lin, J., Tan, Y. X. G., Leong, L. P., & Zhou, W. (2018). Steamed bread enriched with quercetin as an antiglycative food product: Its quality attributes and antioxidant properties. Food & Function, 9(6), 3398–3407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lin, J., Teo, L. M., Leong, L. P., & Zhou, W. (2019). In vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability of quercetin from the quercetin-fortified bread products with reduced glycemic potential. Food Chemistry, 286, 629–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Manach, C., Scalbert, A., Morand, C., Rémésy, C., & Jiménez, L. (2004). Polyphenols: Food sources and bioavailability. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(5), 727–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matsui, T., Ueda, T., Oki, T., Sugita, K., Terahara, N., & Matsumoto, K. (2001). α-Glucosidase inhibitory action of natural acylated anthocyanins. 1. Survey of natural pigments with potent inhibitory activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(4), 1948–1951. Scholar
  19. Mishra, S. & Monro, J. (2012). Wholeness and primary and secondary food structure effects on in vitro digestion patterns determine nutritionally distinct carbohydrate fractions in cereal foods. Food Chemistry, 135, 1968–74.Google Scholar
  20. Patras, A., Brunton, N. P., O’Donnell, C., & Tiwari, B. K. (2010). Effect of thermal processing on anthocyanin stability in foods; mechanisms and kinetics of degradation. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 21(1), 3–11. Scholar
  21. Peng, X., Ma, J., Chen, F., & Wang, M. (2011). Naturally occurring inhibitors against the formation of advanced glycation end-products. Food & Function, 2(6), 289–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pinto, D., Castro, I., Vicente, A., Bourbon, A. I., & Cerqueira, M. Â. (2014). Functional bakery Products: An overview and future perspectives. In Bakery products science and technology (pp. 431–452). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  23. Ranawana, V., Henry, C. J. K. & Pratt, M. (2010a). Degree of habitual mastication seems to contribute to interindividual variations in the glycemic response to rice but not to spaghetti. Nutrition Research, 30, 382–391.Google Scholar
  24. Ranawana, V., Monro, J. A., Mishra, S. & Henry, C. J. K. (2010b). Degree of particle size breakdown during mastication may be a possible cause of interindividual glycemic variability. Nutrition Research, 30, 246–254.Google Scholar
  25. Ribotta, P. D., Pérez, G. T., Añón, M. C., & León, A. E. (2010). Optimization of additive combination for improved soy–wheat bread quality. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 3(3), 395–405. Scholar
  26. Sampson, L., Rimm, E., Hollman, P. C., de Vries, J. H., & Katan, M. B. (2002). Flavonol and flavone intakes in US health professionals. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 102(10), 1414–1420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sivam, A. S., Sun-Waterhouse, D., Quek, S., & Perera, C. O. (2010). Properties of bread dough with added fiber polysaccharides and phenolic antioxidants: A review. Journal of Food Science, 75(8), R163–R174. Scholar
  28. Sivam, A. S., Sun-Waterhouse, D., Perera, C. O., & Waterhouse, G. I. N. (2013). Application of FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy for the study of biopolymers in breads fortified with fibre and polyphenols. Food Research International, 50(2), 574–585. Scholar
  29. Slavin, M., Lu, Y., Kaplan, N., & Yu, L. (2013). Effects of baking on cyanidin-3-glucoside content and antioxidant properties of black and yellow soybean crackers. Food Chemistry, 141(2), 1166–1174. Scholar
  30. Sui, X., Dong, X., & Zhou, W. (2014). Combined effect of pH and high temperature on the stability and antioxidant capacity of two anthocyanins in aqueous solution. Food Chemistry, 163, 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sui, X., Yap, P. Y., & Zhou, W. (2015). Anthocyanins during baking: Their degradation kinetics and impacts on color and antioxidant capacity of bread. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 8(5), 983–994. Scholar
  32. Sui, X., Zhang, Y., & Zhou, W. (2016). Bread fortified with anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice as nutraceutical sources: Its quality attributes and in vitro digestibility. Food Chemistry, 196, 910–916. Scholar
  33. Swieca, M., Seczyk, L., Gawlik-Dziki, U., & Dziki, D. (2014). Bread enriched with quinoa leaves – The influence of protein-phenolics interactions on the nutritional and antioxidant quality. Food Chemistry, 162, 54–62. Scholar
  34. Tamura, M., Okazaki, Y., Kumagai, C. & Ogawa, Y. (2017). The importance of an oral digestion step in evaluating simulated in vitro digestibility of starch from cooked rice grain. Food Research International, 94, 6–12.Google Scholar
  35. Wang, R., & Zhou, W. (2004). Stability of tea catechins in the breadmaking process. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(26), 8224–8229. Scholar
  36. Wang, R., Zhou, W., Yu, H. H., & Chow, W. F. (2006). Effects of green tea extract on the quality of bread made from unfrozen and frozen dough processes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86(6), 857–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang, R., Zhou, W., & Isabelle, M. (2007). Comparison study of the effect of green tea extract (GTE) on the quality of bread by instrumental analysis and sensory evaluation. Food Research International, 40(4), 470–479. Scholar
  38. Wang, R., Zhou, W., & Jiang, X. (2008). Mathematical modeling of the stability of green tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) during bread baking. Journal of Food Engineering, 87(4), 505–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang, W., Sun, C., Mao, L., Ma, P., Liu, F., Yang, J., & Gao, Y. (2016). The biological activities, chemical stability, metabolism and delivery systems of quercetin: A review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 56, 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yilmazer-Musa, M., Griffith, A. M., Michels, A. J., Schneider, E., & Frei, B. (2012). Grape seed and tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(36), 8924–8929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang, A., Chan, P. T., Luk, Y. S., Kwok, K., Ho, W., & Chen, Z.-Y. (1997). Inhibitory effect of jasmine green tea epicatechin isomers on LDL-oxidation. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 8(6), 334–340. Scholar
  42. Zhang, X., Chen, F., & Wang, M. (2014). Antioxidant and antiglycation activity of selected dietary polyphenols in a cookie model. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(7), 1643–1648. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Science & Technology Programme, National University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations