Card-Collection Mechanics in Educational Location-Based AR Games: Transforming Learning Goals to Virtual Rewards

  • Eric Cesar E. VidalJr.Email author
  • Jaclyn Ting Ting M. Lim
  • Jonathan D. L. Casano
  • Ma. Mercedes T. Rodrigo
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 1033)


Location-based AR (LBAR) games offer a potentially viable learning platform for history-related content, but the experience is impaired by player fatigue due to compulsory movement between real-world locations, causing engagement to drop as the length of the game increases. This paper proposes incorporating card-collection mechanics (virtual collectibles/achievements in contemporary games) into an existing history-related, narrative-based LBAR game, Igpaw: Loyola, to counter the effect of fatigue to player engagement while increasing their capacity to absorb educational content.

Participants, divided into control and experimental batches, were tasked to play Igpaw: Loyola without and with the collection mechanic, respectively, under logged observation. Both versions of the game included required and optional locations. The control and experimental batches reported only minor differences in application usability, but a majority of the experimental batch visited the optional locations as opposed to none from the control batch. In the post-quiz, the experimental batch scored the same or better (on average and on each individual question) than the control batch. This leads to the conclusion that the card-collection mechanic significantly and positively impacts both the engagement and learning retention of players, and it is recommended for future LBAR games.


Augmented reality Educational game design Usability Game-based learning Learning motivation Location-based apps 


  1. 1.
    Bacca, J., Baldiris, S., Fabregat, R., Graf, S.: Augmented reality trend in education: a systematic review of research and applications. Educ. Technol. Soc. 17(4), 133–149 (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dunleavy, M., Dede, C.: Augmented reality teaching and learning. In: Spector, J., Merrill, M., Elen, J., Bishop, M. (eds.) Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology, pp. 735–745. Springer, New York (2014). Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harley, J.M., Poitras, E.G., Jarrell, A., Duffy, M.C., Lajoie, S.P.: Comparing virtual and location-based augmented reality mobile learning: emotions and learning outcomes. Educ. Technol. Res. Dev. 64(3), 359–388 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rodrigo, M.M., Vidal, E.C., Caluya, N.R., Agapito, J.L., Diy, W.D.: Usability study of an augmented reality game for Philippine history. In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Computers in Education, Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education, Mumbai, India (2016)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vidal, E.C., et al.: Igpaw: Loyola—design of a campus-wide augmented reality game using MAGIS. In: Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Computers in Education, Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education, Philippines (2018)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Santos, M.E., Taketomi, T., Sandor, C., Polvi, J., Yamamoto, G., Kato, H.: A usability scale for handheld augmented reality. In: Proceedings of the 20th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST 2014), pp. 167–176 (2014)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Welch, B.L.: The generalization of “student’s” problem when several different population variances are involved. Biometrika 34(1–2), 28–35 (1947)MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ateneo de Manila UniversityQuezon CityPhilippines
  2. 2.Ateneo de Naga UniversityNagaPhilippines

Personalised recommendations